Difference Between Data Hiding and Data Encapsulation

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: September 15, 2022


Difference Between Data Hiding and Data Encapsulation Difference Between Data Hiding and Data Encapsulation

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A paradigm for computer programming based on objects is called object-oriented programming. Objects are the primary focus of this paradigm. These objects hold a variety of information, including data and code. The data that goes into making up anything referred to as characteristics is structured into fields. On the other hand, the procedures that make up the codes that are referred to collectively as methods are what form the designs. Two concepts regarded as the essential components of object-oriented programming are data hiding and encapsulation.

It's possible that "data hiding" and "data encapsulation" signify the same thing to someone who's not very experienced with computers. On the other hand, these two ideas couldn't be more different.

Data encapsulation and hiding are aspects of object-oriented programming that apply to various programming languages, including C, C++, and others. You may utilize these aspects of OOP to create more secure applications. Generally, these two ideas are the two most important aspects of object-oriented programming.

Data encapsulation and data hiding are similar in that they include objects (described as values, data, structures, or functions), classes (described as collections of data and procedures), computer code, and methods.

Data Hiding vs Data Encapsulation

The main difference between Data Hiding and Data Encapsulation is that the former relates to a process, whilst the latter is a component of a sub-process that belongs to that process. The meanings of the two notions are distinct despite the fact that one is a component of the other. There are further distinctions between them, such as their aims, areas of emphasis, access specifiers, and processes.

One of the ideas involved in object-oriented programming is known as "data hiding." The practice of data concealing ensures the members of a certain class are protected from unauthorized access to their data. [Case in point:] [Case in point:] It prevents members' data as well as the organization itself from being hacked. A breach in data security may result in the unauthorized disclosure of information or the modification of data for unlawful purposes. Both data elements and method implementations are included in the class. The method of safeguarding the members of the class via the concealing of data is known as data hiding. As a result, this is the method for enhancing overall security. Use access modifiers while working with programming languages like Java. They are open to the public, but also kept private. Objects belonging to classes other than the one being used may access the public data members and methods. The protected members may only be accessed by objects that belong to the same class or a subclass of that class. The objects that belong to the class have access to the private members of the class.

The process of data encapsulation is also sometimes referred to as "data hiding." Another idea that may be found in object-oriented programming is known as data encapsulation. A user is shielded from seeing the specifics of a class's implementation via the usage of this approach. It is also used to refer to the practice of enclosing private data in classes when talking about object-oriented programming languages. Object-oriented programming (OOP) allows for the program or software to be represented using various objects. Each thing has characteristics and actions of its own.

The data members and characteristics are referred to as the attributes, while the actions are referred to as the methods. A class is used to generate each individual item. It offers a description or a blueprint to follow in order to construct things. One of the most important aspects of OOP is called encapsulation. It refers to the process of integrating all of the data members and procedures into a single cohesive whole.

Difference between Data Hiding vs Data Encapsulation in Tabular Form

Table: Data Hiding vs Data Encapsulation
Parameters of Comparison
Data Hiding
Data Encapsulation
 A member of a class is said to be shielded against access that is unrecognized, unlawful, or unauthorized when this phrase is used.
 The wrapping of the implementation details of certain data members and methods included inside a class is what this term refers to.
 The goal is to hide the intricacy of the data while still protecting the data.
 Encapsulation is the practice of wrapping data in order to conceal the complexities of a system. This renders the system less complicated and makes it simpler for the end user to use.
 Within a capsule, the provision of data consumption limitations and allowances is the primary concentration of this discussion.
 The process of enclosing or surrounding the complex data is the primary emphasis here.
Access Specifier
 The data is completely confidential and cannot be accessed when Data Hiding is enabled.
 The data are not necessarily kept secret when using data encapsulation; rather, the data may be made public.
 It is both a method and a distinct process that is being referred to here.
 It is an element of the procedure that falls under the umbrella of data concealing.

What Is Data Hiding?

Data may easily be used for a variety of reasons, including the transmission of information, the maintenance of records or notes, and other uses. The data members or owners choose whether or whether the data is made public or kept private. When certain data is modified, it leads to negative impacts, one of which is producing inaccurate findings.

It is also possible that the integrity of specific data will be compromised as a result of this. Due to all of these factors, the content of a program that is Data is not only sensitive but also volatile. Because of this, it is imperative that the data be kept secure and guarded. This may be accomplished by limiting access from the outside.

Access modifiers are simply the keywords that are used in object-oriented programming languages to set the accessibility of members such as classes, methods, and other components. Access modifiers come in a few flavors, the most common of which are private, followed by public and protected. These access modifiers in Java are useful for changing the data hiding behavior. If the information is available to the general public, then it may be seen by everyone. This data is accessible to those who are not members of a certain class.

Object-oriented programming makes use of a technique known as "data hiding" to conceal information inside the body of computer code. Objects included inside a code do not have access to information that is regarded as being concealed. Programmers have access to various benefits as a result, since it prevents objects from connecting to unnecessary data and makes it more difficult for hackers to get to data in the first place.

On the other hand, concealing data might make it more difficult for a programmer to do their job, as they could need more lines of code to produce the same effects in the concealed data as they would if the data were open to the public.

Declaring data to be private is necessary for any purpose involving the concealment of information or the limitation of access to it by other parties. After the data has been marked as private, it will have limited access. This implies that only objects that belong to a certain class will be able to use the data.

What is Data Encapsulation?

Object-oriented programming languages include a notion called Data Encapsulation, which is a sub-process of Data hiding. Data hiding is itself a process. It places an emphasis on streamlining data processes and lowering the complexity of data. It is the process of encapsulating both code and data together in a single container. This is done so that the complexity of a particular class is not exposed.

When it comes to concealing data, the access specifiers play a significant part in the process of shielding the data from unauthorized access from the outside world. The access specifiers play a significant part in the process of data encapsulation since they are responsible for securing the data against unauthorized access from the inside. When it comes to data encapsulation, the members of a class might be private, public, or protected, depending on the context.

In object-oriented programming, the idea of data encapsulation refers to the binding of a set of related attributes, functions, and other elements into a single entity that is then regarded as a whole. The most effective illustration of data encapsulation is the Class. This practice, which blocks the user from accessing the implementation details and is frequently referred to as data concealing, Therefore, encapsulation provides a guarantee for the data's integrity that is contained inside the Object.

It grants access to the members based on the classes that they belong to. For instance, only the private members of a certain class will have access to the objects that belong to that class. Encapsulation is more concerned with the inner workings of a system than it is with its presentation to the outside world.

For instance, the job description of an employee at McDonald's includes receiving orders and delivering them to the respective clients. It is his responsibility to enter the orders into the computer and hand up the tray once the food is ready. It is not necessary for him to understand how the order is processed. And this is how the process of data encapsulation contributes to the overall reduction in complexity of a system.

Main Differences Between Data Hiding and Data Encapsulation in Points

  • The term "data hiding" refers to the practice of shielding individuals within a class from access that is either unrecognized, unlawful, or unapproved. Encapsulation, on the other hand, refers to the process of enveloping the implementation details of a particular data member and the methods included inside a class.
  • The protection of data and the concealment of the data's complexity are the two primary goals of data concealing. The complexity of the data is masked via the use of data encapsulation, with the final goal being to make the system more user-friendly for everyday usage.
  • The provision of use limits or authorizations for data while it is contained inside a capsule is the primary emphasis of data concealing. In the process of data encapsulation, the wrapping or enveloping of the complex data is the primary emphasis.
  • When using Data Hiding, the data is completely hidden from view and cannot be accessed by anybody. The data are not necessarily kept secret when using data encapsulation; rather, the data may be made public.
  • The concealment of data is both a method and a distinct process in and of itself. Encapsulating data, on the other hand, is a step involved in the process of concealing sensitive information.
  • While data concealing makes use of the private access modifier, encapsulation makes use of the private, protected, and public access modifiers.
  • Encapsulation is a procedure that may be used to achieve data hiding, whereas data hiding itself is a process that protects data.


In conclusion, I would like to point out that encapsulation and data hiding are both crucial aspects to consider while developing a system. Encapsulation is focused on decreasing the complexity of the system in order to make the program more user-friendly, while data concealing is focused on the security of the data. However, the two go hand in hand since they are complementary to one another.

It's possible that data encapsulation and data concealing are two names for the same thing. This is mostly owing to the fact that data encapsulation is a component of data hiding; however, this is further complicated by the many ideas that are inherent to object-oriented data languages. The two ideas are not interchangeable; their definitions, purposes, focal points, and methods are all distinct from one another.

Hiding data and encapsulating information are both very important steps in the process of putting up a system. Because one is concerned with minimizing complexity while the other prioritizes protecting data. Which ultimately leads to the safety of data and a user-friendly interface for the system.


  1. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/4426486/
  2. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/818099/

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"Difference Between Data Hiding and Data Encapsulation." Diffzy.com, 2023. Mon. 27 Mar. 2023. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-data-hiding-and-data-encapsulation-1011>.

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