Difference Between C and C++

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: August 27, 2022

       

Difference Between C and C++ Difference Between C and C++

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Introduction

It is necessary for the user of a computer to be able to interact with the computer. A medium of instruction is required for the execution of any command and the production of any output. A machine will never be able to comprehend even the simplest form of the English language or any other human language. Computer languages such as C and C++, along with a great number of others, were developed as a solution to this problem.

Programming languages such as C and C++ are used in the creation of a wide variety of software, including applications, games, database systems, operating systems, and more. The programming languages C and C++ may seem same, yet their capabilities and applications are quite different. The computer language C is a procedural language, and as such, it does not support objects or classes. Programming in C is the basis for C++, which is an improved language.

C vs C++

The main difference between C and C ++ lies is the type of language and the functions it supports. C is a procedural language, which indicates that it works on methods, but C++ is both a procedural and an object-oriented language, which indicates that it also focuses on user data. Both languages, however, work on methods. This distinction has a significant impact due to the fact that, in comparison to C, C++ is a language that is easier to use.

Because C is a procedural programming language, this indicates that it employs a sequence of stages in order for the program to address the issue that has been presented to it. Users are able to construct whatever program they want with little memory access and separate data and functions using this language because of its huge number of operators and short fixed number of keywords. The language includes 32 keywords total. The C programming language may be used for either structural or procedural-oriented programming. Dennis Ritchie of Bell Laboratories was the one who came up with the idea in 1972. This machine-independent programming language was created so that utilities could be written so that they could be executed on the Unix platform. Today, a broad number of industries and applications make extensive use of it.

Because it has both the characteristics of low-level languages and those of high-level languages, the programming language C is categorized as a middle-level language. As it is the language upon which other programming languages are built, it is considered to be one of the fundamental languages for novice or new programmers.

C++ is a computer language that may be used for both procedural and object-oriented tasks. It is a mixture of elements from both types of the variety. In comparison to other languages, it contains 63 times as many terms, and it is an object-oriented programming language. It allows for polymorphism, encapsulation, and inheritance, among other features. It provides access to more memory and can be manipulated in more ways, making it more user friendly. Bjarne Stroustrup of Bell Laboratories is credited with the creation of the high-level programming language known as C++. C++ was first developed in the early 1980s. It is an extension of the standard C programming language, with support for object-oriented programming and additional features added on top of that.

C++ is often regarded as one of the most efficient programming languages due to its strong relationship to low-level languages. It gives the user total control over the allocation and management of memory. C++ is used in the development of programs that are both sophisticated and high-performance. Because C++ is so similar to C# and Java, it is much simpler for programmers to transition to these other languages and become proficient in them.

Difference Between C and C++ in Tabular Form

Table: C vs C++
Parameters of Comparison
C
C++
Developed By
 Dennis Ritchie, an American computer scientist, created the programming language known as C between the years 1969 and 1973.
 A Danish computer scientist by the name of Bjarne Stroustrup came up with the idea for C++ in the year 1979.
Type of Language
 The computer language C is based on the concept of procedures.
 In addition to being an object-oriented programming language, C++ also has a procedure-oriented programming paradigm.
OOP Support
 This data encapsulation, polymorphism, and inheritance are not allowed by C since they need OPP, which C does not provide.
 C++, on the other hand, enables users to encapsulate data, use polymorphism, and inherit from other objects.
Security
 Because C does not encapsulate data, it is possible for other programming languages to access it.
 Encapsulating data not only improves data security but also ensures that data structures and functions are only accessed by the user and not by any code that comes from the outside.
Supported Features
 The programming language C does not allow features such as the function operator, overloading, the namespace feature, the functionality of reference variables, virtual and friend operations, or exceptional handling.
 C++ provides support for a wide variety of features, including the function operator, overloading, the namespace feature, the functionality of reference variables, virtual and friend operations, and exceptional handling.
Header file
 studio.h is the name of the header file that the C application makes use of.
 Iostream.h is the name of the header file that C++ employs.

What is C?

C is a programming language that can be used for a variety of purposes and is organized. It was first designed for use in the construction of systems, including the software that goes into operating systems. Because of its adaptability, rapid execution, and ease of use, it became widely used in the construction of a variety of application programs very immediately.

Dennis Ritchie, a computer scientist working at Bell Laboratories in the year 1972, was the one responsible for its creation. There is a computer language known as C that is referred to as "God's programming language." This is because C serves as the foundation for a large number of contemporary languages, including Python, Java, C++, and a great many more.

The popularity of the C programming language as well as its adaptability may be seen in the widespread use of software and apps that were developed using C. From working on a variety of operating systems, including as Windows, Apple OS X, and Symbian, to mobile and desktop operating systems; from language compilers and network drivers to some of the most well-known apps, such as MySQL and Adobe, among others.

Following the debate that was just had, we are now in a position to officially analyze the structure of a C program. When we talk about structure, we mean the fact that any program can be constructed using just this structure. Therefore, you will get a compilation error if you try to write a C program using any other structure.

The programming language C may be adapted to work on a variety of platforms and operating systems. This implies that even if you have created your code for one platform, you can still move it to other platforms or execute it on other platforms in order to make changes or updates. C is sometimes referred to as the machine-independent language for this same reason.

What is C++?

1979 was the year that Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup invented the programming language known as C++. The programming language C++ may be thought of as a superset of the C language. It used a syntax and code structure that was quite close to the original. On the other hand, it has a much greater number of operators and keywords. There is a modicum of extension to its grammar. However, in addition to object-oriented programming, this language also offers programming in a procedural orientation.

Inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation, and data abstraction are all supported by object-oriented programming, often known as OPP. Because of this, the code may be made more secure, and the data can continue to be contained.

It is also capable of supporting additional features like as variable and operator overloading, exceptional handling, a variety of functions, and functions contained inside a structure. The programming language has been improved and made easier to use as a result of the new features that have been included.

C++ is a computer language that is object-oriented and may be used for a variety of purposes. Around the year 1980, Bjarne Stroustrup worked at Bell Labs and developed it. C++ is somewhat comparable to C. (invented by Dennis Ritchie in the early 1970s). Because C++ is so compatible with C, it may possibly build more than 99 percent of C programs without requiring any changes to the source code. Despite this, C++ is a far more well-structured and safer language than C since it is based on object-oriented programming.

Some computer languages were developed to fulfill a particular need when they were first developed. Java, for example, was originally designed to be used for controlling toasters and other home appliances. C is mostly used for programming operating systems. The idea of the computer language Pascal was to educate appropriate programming practices. However, C++ may be used for a wide variety of tasks. It is aptly known as the "Swiss Army Knife of Languages," which is a term that is generally appreciated.

Main Differences Between C and C++ in Points

  • C is an object-oriented programming language, while C++ is a culmination of both object orientation and procedure orientation. C is a structure-, method-, or procedure-oriented programming language.
  • Since the C language includes all of the functions and keywords of the C++ language, it is considered to be a subset of C++. On the other hand, the C++ language is considered to be a superset of C due to its more sophisticated and additional capabilities.
  • Since C is not an object-oriented language, there is no data encapsulation in it, which makes information less safe. Data encapsulation enables the concealing of information, which results in the object-oriented programming language C++ having increased levels of safety.
  • Studio.h is the name of the header file used by C applications, whereas iostream.h is the name of the file used by C++.
  • Memory allocation is handled by the malloc() and calloc() methods in C, whereas the new operator is used in C++. C also includes a method called free() that may be used to clear memory, whereas C++ offers an operator called delete.
  • In C, the input and output operators are referred to as scanf() and printf(), whereas in C++, the corresponding operators are cin and cout.
  • Both virtual functions and friend functions are not supported by the C programming language. while C++ supports both virtual functions and friend functions in its programming language.
  • C does not enable inheritance at this time. On the other hand, C++ has support for inheritance.

Conclusion

Programming languages C and C++ are also available. Although their syntax and grammar are similar, C++ contains expanded keywords, functions, and operators. C++ aims to be data/object-oriented whereas C is structure-oriented. This gives it access to several capabilities that are not available in its native language, C.

Operating systems, database systems, network drivers, games, and other applications may all utilize the C language. All of the aforementioned scenarios, as well as web programming, sophisticated database systems, and cloud-based applications, may be accomplished with C++.

Knowing about the fundamental programming languages like C and C++ is essential since programming languages are used to operate all apps. One thing is clear from the contrast between C and C++: as a programmer, you get to decide which language to use for your project. You can see that both C and C++ are appropriate for various project types after looking at their features, benefits, and downsides.

C is one of the fundamental languages for a novice, however it is better suited for applications at the lower levels of programming.

This language's extension, C++, offers more OOP ideas that make it easier, quicker, and more secure to create sophisticated programs. Additionally, the demand for this language leads to promising opportunities for developers. As a result, you must carefully study this text before making an objective choice between C and C++.

References

  1. https://bhavikjoshi35.wordpress.com/2015/12/10/c-programming-language/
  2. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=q7fomH9lOU8C&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=c%2B%2B+programming+language&ots=8dTHyxB4MD&sig=qq8TkVn_4Aa1jvRRdelh4cfWiRA


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