Difference Between Spin-Off, Split-Off, Split-Up and Carve-Out

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: April 30, 2023


Difference Between Spin-Off, Split-Off, Split-Up and Carve-Out

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Divestment employs various strategies and alternatives, such as spin-offs, split-offs, split-ups, and carve-outs, to allow parent firms to manage their portfolio strategy efficiently and, as a result, accomplish their financial objectives. These four terms are corporate actions that companies (in this case, the parent company) typically take when they buy or hold funds in other companies (which then become subsidiaries). Divest the company's assets, a unit, or a subsidiary company to ensure the business's and shareholders' potential growth.

The most common reason for parent businesses to employ these corporate procedures is to eliminate non-lucrative subsidiaries to concentrate their efforts on profitable subsidiaries. A firm can sell specific assets, a division, or a subsidiary by a spin-off, split-off, split-up, or carve-out. While the parent company's choice of technique is influenced by various factors, as mentioned below, the ultimate goal is to improve shareholder value. The following are the key reasons why firms decide to sell their assets. Divestiture, often known as divestiture, is the process of selling a portion or division of a firm to another company or forming a new company.

Spin-Off Vs. Split-Off Vs. Split-Up Vs. Carve-Out

The establishment of a new independent company from the parent firm by dispersing the old company's shares is known as a spin-off. In a split-off, the parent business offers shareholders the choice of keeping their existing shares or trading them for shares in the divesting firm. A parent firm breaking into two or more independent companies is known as a split-up. When a parent firm sells some of its subsidiary business's shares to the public, this is known as a carve-out.

The spin-off, split-off, split-up, equity carve-out, and other forms of divestiture exist. The two most widely contrasted types of divestiture are spin-off and split-off. The term "spin-off" refers to a corporate division that separates from its parent corporation and becomes its entity. On the other hand, split-off is a procedure in which the holding company's shareholders are given shares in the subsidiary that is being split off in return for their holding company shares. The corporation decides to sell to focus on its core competencies, to meet a pressing financial demand, or because the business is too big to run and the unit isn't generating enough money.

A spin-off, a split-off, a split-up, and a carve-out are four alternative divestiture procedures with the same goal: to improve shareholder value. Existing shareholders receive shares of the new subsidiary in a spin-off. A split-off provides shareholders with shares in the new subsidiary, but they must choose between the subsidiary and the original firm. When a parent firm sells shares in a new subsidiary in an initial public offering, this is known as a carve-out (IPO). Most spin-offs outperform the broader market and, in certain situations, outperform their original company.

Difference Between  Spin-Off, Split-Off, Split-Up, And Carve-Out in Tabular Form

Parameter Of Comparison Spin-Off Split-Off Split-Up Carve-Out
Definition A corporate spin-off is an entirely new and separate independent corporation formed from a parent firm while the parent company is shut down. Split-offs are a type of divestment in which a new business is established from the parent firm while the old company remains open and operational. A split-up occurs when a parent business is dissolved and two or more firms are established. A carve-out occurs when a new business is formed from the parent firm, and the new company's shares are sold in an initial public offering (IPO).
Shares In a spin-off, the parent company's shares in the new firm are sold and distributed to current shareholders.


During a split-off, the company's shareholders can keep their parent company's shares or trade them for new enterprise shares. The parent company's shares can be exchanged for the new entity's shares in a split-up. Carve-outs sell and distribute shares of the new corporation based on the first public offering. Furthermore, no claims are distributed to current stockholders.
Objective Spin-offs result in forming a new business from the original corporation, which has its own identity. The transactions between the core businesses and the new firm are separated by split-offs. Split-ups are intended mainly to create many company lines to increase earnings. The new business established by the parent company is not considered in the achievement of the parent company's principal objectives under carve-outs.
Taxable Spin-offs work by preventing the original firm from paying taxes. Split-offs, however, may not provide the parent firm with tax-free status. The parent company is only taxed on the firm's liquidation when it is broken up. A carve-out business can sell no more than 20% of the parent firm's equity in an initial public offering to avoid paying taxes.
Shareholders' Privileges Existing shareholders can benefit from the parent business and the new entity's shares in a spin-off. After shareholders swap their shares for the new entity's shares, the split-off firms provide them a premium. The stockholders do not receive any rewards from the split-up firms. Carve-outs provide shares to the general public while establishing a group of shareholders in the new firm.

What Is Spin-Off?

A spin-off is a sort of divestment in which a portion of a company is separated and formed as a separate company by issuing new shares. Spin-out or starburst are two terms for this type of business divestment. To compensate for the loss of ownership in the initial stocks, the stakes are given as a dividend to existing shareholders in proportion to their holdings. The company's license will remain unchanged in this fashion, with the same investors owning it in the same ratio.

Furthermore, shareholders can keep these shares for themselves or sell them on the open market. Companies choose a spin-off to manage a high-potential segment, especially in the long run. The parent company transfers assets, intellectual property (copyright, royalty, trademark, etc.), and labor to the newly connected company in a spin-off. A spin-off occurs when a business division of a parent firm results in the formation of a separate company that works independently. The company's ownership will not change since the shareholders will remain the same and possess the same shares.

Shareholders can choose to keep their shares or sell them to interested parties. Companies appreciate it because it allows them to manage a division with strong long-term potential. The parent business must provide 80 percent of voting and non-voting shares to the subsidiary firm for it to function. The new subsidiary may only be held accountable and responsible for its transactions once the parent business has been removed from management.


  • Because the purpose of this firm is to achieve the business models, spin-off businesses make a lot of money. These companies also want to recruit fresh investors.
  • Investors are showing much interest in the spun-off shares since these companies have a lot of potentials. As a result, the company's shareholders/investors are protected.
  • Employees are interested in expressing their uniqueness and vision. As a result, these businesses assist their employees in doing so.
  • A spin-off firm has its stock price, which reflects the performance of the company's administration on the stock market.

What Is Split-Off?

The word "split-off" refers to a type of corporate reorganization in which the shares of a company's subsidiary or unit are given to shareholders in exchange for the parent concern's equity. As a result, it's comparable to stock repurchase, in which the parent firm buys back its stock.

The term "split" refers to the division of shareholders in a break-off.

Before the split-off, the split-off entity is a division or subsidiary of the parent concern, which after the split-off becomes a separate legal entity owned by some of the parent organization's shareholders, with ownership of the parent concern remaining with the remaining shareholders who do not surrender their shares for the split-off shares. It is a technique to protect the subsidiary firm against hostile takeovers while also benefiting both the holding company and the subsidiary being split off. The shareholders who leave the parent firm become shareholders and owners of the new corporation, while the existing shareholders retain ownership of the original company. The method protects both the parent business and the subsidiary from hostile takeovers while also benefiting the holding company by selling shares.


  • The benefit of split-offs to the parent business is that they are comparable to stock repurchases,
  • except that instead of using cash, the subsidiary firm's stock is utilized as a stock buyback. This prevents dilution of the shares.

What Is Split-Up?

A split-up is a corporate word that refers to a parent business splitting up into two or more independent firms, with the parent company's stocks being swapped for the newly independent companies' stocks with the investors' care and caution. Split-ups Occur for a variety of reasons. First, companies purposefully split apart to restructure their operations. Second, these new independent businesses may have unique lines for which they need cash, resources, and staff. Third, investors/shareholders may benefit from split-ups since controlling each division separately would boost the profitability of the autonomous organization. Furthermore, the split-up firms' combined profits exceed those of the parent corporation.

Companies should be divided primarily due to the government's participation in reducing monopolistic practices. However, a monopoly split up hasn't been witnessed in the market in over a decade.

For example, Facebook and Google are monopolies that the government broke up to protect customers' interests.

What Is Carve-Out?

A carve-out happens when a parent company sells some or all of its subsidiary's shares in an initial public offering to the public (IPO). In contrast to a spin-off, a carve-out frequently results in a financial inflow for the parent company. A carve-out creates a net set of shareholders in the subsidiary because shares are offered to the general public. A carve-out typically occurs before the subsidiary is entirely spun off to the parent company's shareholders. To be tax-free, a prospective spin-off must satisfy the 80 percent control condition, which implies that no upwards of 20% of the subsidiary's stock may be sold in an IPO.

A carve-out is a business phrase that describes how a firm separates a subsidiary from its parent company and establishes it as a separate entity. A board of directors has been selected for the new entity. The care-out is concerned not only with selling the firm but also with selling and distributing the entity's equity shares via an initial public offering (IPO). Existing shareholders do not get any equity shares that are exchanged or distributed.


  • In most cases, a carve-out arrangement benefits both the parent firm and the new organization.
  • Since two different companies are established from an old and enormous firm.
  • The new corporation intends to focus on this significant purpose for the benefit of the new entity and the parent company, as they will both end up making large sums of money.

Main Differences Between  Spin-Off, Split-Off, Split-Up, And Carve-Out in Points


  • Spin-offs are formed so that the new business created by the parent firm has its own distinct identity. The goal of a split-off is that the parent business's core objectives diverge from those of the new entity.
  • The primary goal of splitting up is to create numerous business lines to boost the profitability and potency of the company. The carve-out firm does not seek to achieve the parent company's significant objectives; instead, it aims to conduct its own organizational goal.


  • Companies that take part in spin-offs are not required to pay any taxes. However, the parent corporations must pay taxes under Split-off.
  • The firm is only taxed when it is liquidated in a split-up. The parent business should not sell more than 20% of the shares that can be offered through an initial public offering under carve-outs for the parent company to be tax-free.


  • The benefits of a shareholder in a spin-off are that the shareholder's profit from both the parent and the new entity's share benefits. In addition, shareholders benefit from split-offs by receiving a premium if and when they swap their parent company's shares for shares in the new business.
  • Shareholders of firms that have participated in split-ups do not receive any rewards. Instead, carve-outs benefit shareholders by allowing the corporation to increase the value of the company's stock.


Companies that want to improve efficiency and effectiveness typically sell unproductive divisions or unrelated subsidiaries to focus on their primary and more profitable operations. Corporate spin-offs and split-offs are the most acceptable options for doing so. Typically, company owners believe that creating a corporation will be overly costly or time-consuming, yet both assumptions are incorrect. On the contrary, businesspeople appear to gain much when they begin their company as a corporation rather than any other type of business organization. Moreover, these advantages frequently outweigh the problems that a corporation may encounter. As a result, when parent firms demand productive and well-organized job performance, they contemplate selling irrelevant or unprofitable subsidiaries to the core business to concentrate their attention on new profitable ventures. In such circumstances, divestment is the best alternative.


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"Difference Between Spin-Off, Split-Off, Split-Up and Carve-Out." Diffzy.com, 2024. Sat. 15 Jun. 2024. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-spin-off-split-off-split-up-and-carve-out-452>.

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