Introduction
It is important to understand financial concepts. When evaluating and analysing investments, the Net Present Value (or Payback) are two of the most common financial metrics. Both can be used to evaluate Capital Budgeting decisions and are used to determine if a budget should be made in Financial Institutions, Companies, or governments.
Payback vs. NPV
The major difference between NPV and Payback is that Net Present Value takes time into account and money the next. On the other hand, payback considers money to be one dimension and ignores time. Both provide a glimpse of the return on the initial investment.
NPV is the acronym for Net Present Value. The Net Present Value is a measure of future cash flow and determines the value of an investment. It can be used to determine the present or future value of an investment. This metric can be used to calculate capital costs for various products and projects.
Payback is the time it takes to recover an equipment investment. This includes all income and expenses. This is used to determine the viability of potential projects and in capital budgeting. This is something that most financial managers, accountants, and enterprise consultants will be aware of.
Difference Between NPV and Payback in Tabular Form
Parameters for Comparison

Net Present Value (NPV).

Payback

Definition

It is the discounted total cash flow amount that is associated with capital investments.

It refers to the time it takes for an initial investment to be repaid.

Interest treatment

During the earning period, interest will not be reinvested. Instead, it will be paid back to investors.

This interest will be reinvested at the exact same rate as it was earned.

Cash Flows.

It includes all future cash flows anticipated, regardless of whether they are generated by the project under consideration.

Only cash flows generated by the project are used in the payback method.

Period

This method can be used to consider any number of time periods in an indefinite future horizon, including infinity.

This method only considers cash flows that occur during one period, usually one year.

Useful for

It is used to estimate many uncertain cash flows and new investments, or technology.

This is useful for projects that have a short life span and will need to be destroyed. Eg. Building.

It is essential to assess the potential value of any project before investing. This can be done from a financial perspective using a variety of methods, including Net Present Value (NPV), and payback methods. These can be used to measure sustainability and longterm project value. They differ in how they are calculated and what factors they use, so there is a difference in the benefits and limitations.
The Net Present Value (NPV) is a standard way to use the time value of money to evaluate longterm projects. It is a series of cash flows, both incoming or outgoing, that are calculated in currency. NPV is the sum of all the cash flows' present values. The most important thing about NPV is "present value". In other words, NPV = PV(Present value)." I (Investment). For instance, given $1,000 for I, $10,000 for PV: $10,000  $1,000 = $9, 000 = NPV. NPV is a way to help you choose between different investments. Here are the conditions: NPV > 0, Accept the Investment, NPV 0, Reject the Investment, NPV 0, The investment is marginal.
Payback is used to assess a purchase or expansion. It is used to determine the time period in which investments will be repaid. This is often in years. It is equal to the original investment divided by annual savings, revenue or in math terms: Payback period = I/CF (cashflow per year). If you have $10,000 to invest in I and $1,000 for CF, then 10,000 x 1, 000 = 10 years (payback period). The payback period is shorter, which means that the investment will be more profitable. Long paybacks mean that investment will remain locked up for a long period of time, which can make a project unsustainable.
What is NPV?
The Net Present Value (NPV) method is used to calculate the financial value of a project. The NPV calculation is often used to determine whether a business should invest capital or finance. Accounting and financial managers use this calculation to decide if a company should purchase or lease equipment or invest in a new venture. Net Present Value is a way to compare different profitability profiles and time horizons. It can also be used with projects that have an initial investment to determine future cash flows.
It is the sum total of all future cash receipts minus all future cash payments. This amount is then discounted to the present at a suitable discount rate. It is worth pursuing a project if its expected NPV value is positive. It is not worth pursuing a project if its expected NPV total is negative.
It can be used to make decisions when comparing projects from different periods or when creating a business plan. It can also be used to estimate future income and place it in context with existing assets.
Calculating the Net Present Value
Due to inflation and potential earnings from other investments made in the interim, money in the present is more valuable than money in the future. A dollar earned in future will not be as valuable as one earned in present. This is why the NPV formula includes a discount rate component.
As an example, suppose that an investor can choose to pay $100 today or in the next year. An intelligent investor wouldn't be willing to delay payment. What if the investor could choose to get $100 now or $105 over the course of a year? The extra 5% might be worth it if the payer is reliable. However, investors would need to make sure there was nothing else they could do with the $100.
Investors might be willing to wait for a year in order to get an additional 5%. However, this may not be feasible for all investors. The 5% discount rate is what you pay, and it will vary from investor to investor. Investors would not hesitate to delay payment for 5% if they knew that they could earn 8% on a relatively safe investment in the next year. The investor's discount rate in this instance is 8%.
The expected return of similar projects or the cost of borrowing money to finance the project may be used by a company to determine the discount rate. A company might avoid a project expected to return 10% per annum if financing costs exceed 12% or if an alternative project is expected to return 14% per annum.
Imagine that a company could invest $1,000,000 in equipment and generate $25,000 per month for five years. The company has enough capital to purchase the equipment. They could also invest the money in the stock exchange for an estimated return of 8% each year. Managers feel that investing in the stock exchange or buying the equipment is a similar risk.
What is a good NPV?
An NPV is considered "good" if it exceeds zero. The NPV calculation takes into consideration factors like the cost of capital, opportunity costs, and risk tolerance using the discount rate. The future cash flows and the time value money are also included in the NPV calculation. To provide additional safety, investors may insist that an NPV of just $1 is considered "good."
Limitations on Net Present Value
Estimates and assumptions are key to determining the profitability of an investment with NPV. There is a lot of room for error. These factors include projected returns, discount rate, investment costs and investment costs. Unexpected expenditures may be required to get a project off the ground, or additional expenses at the end.
What is Payback?
The payback in finance and business is the time it takes to recover an initial investment in an incomeproducing venture. Payback is a measure that measures the performance of an investment project over time. It can be expressed in years. It is calculated using the formula annual return divided by initial investment and subtracted by one. It is one of the many financial metrics used to compare investments or projects. This is also known by the names payback time, payback term, and analysis of payback periods.
So that people can determine their payback period, the Payback Period should also be listed with the Return on Investment. This will help you decide if you should buy something.
You can express the payback period as either an annual or monthly number. When deciding whether or not to invest in something, compare interest rates and cash flow. There are two types of investment: shortterm and long term. Higher returns mean shorter payback periods, which can make it easier to recover your expenses. You should think twice about accepting highrisk investment opportunities that offer high returns on your investment.
What is a good payback period?
The shortest payback period is the best. As soon as possible, you should get repaid or recover the initial cost of a project. Not all investments and projects have the same time horizon. Therefore, the payback period must be considered within the wider context of the time horizon. A home improvement project might have a payback period of decades, while a construction project could take five years.
Example of a Payback Period
Let's take an example to illustrate how the payback period works. Let's say Company A invests $1million in a project that will save it $250,000 per year. Divide $1 million by $250,000 to get the fouryear payback for this investment.
Another project, which costs $200,000 and has no cash savings, will net the company an additional $100,000 every year for the next twenty years to make it $2 million. The second project will make the company twice as rich, but how long does it take to repay the investment?
Divide $200,000 by $100,000 to find the answer. This will give you two years. The company's earnings potential will be greater and the second project will be easier to pay off. The second project is better based on its payback period.
The pros and cons of each method
Payback period methods have some weaknesses that the NPV method doesn't. The payback method does not take inflation and capital costs into consideration. This means that $1 today is equivalent to $1 in the future. However, the purchasing power of money decreases over time. Another reason is that the payback method does not consider cash flows beyond the time horizon. These cash flows could be significant. It is not uncommon for big moneymakers to take time to get started.
The biggest problem with the NPV method is its assumptions. You will not know the result of your calculations if you don't estimate the discount rate correctly until the project becomes a huge moneyloser.
Combining the two methods
When making capital budgeting decisions, many businesses use multiple methods. To narrow down your options, you could use the payback method. Then, use the NPV to determine the best projects. You could also use the NPV to identify the winners and losers among potential projects. Next, look at the payback periods to determine which projects are returning their costs faster.
Key Differences Between NPV and Payback in Points
Here are the Zey Difference Between NPV and Payback:
 The Payback Period method takes into account the money's time value, while Net Present Value does not take into consideration the money's time value.
 The Net Present Value refers to a time value for money, while the Payback Period refers to an accounting method.
 Net Present Value can be used to evaluate the relative merits of investments over the long term. The Payback method is only a shortterm investment strategy.
 Although the formula for net present value looks more complex than the Payback period method it is much simpler than the former.
 Payback focuses on cash flow, while Net Present Value is focused on future cash flow.
Conclusion
Both NPV (or Payback) are used to assess investments. However, these terms refer to different methods of calculating total cash flow (NCF). Unlike Payback, NPV considers the time value of money and discounts future cash flows to the past to calculate their net present value (NPV). When lenders try to decide if it's more profitable for them to finance a project or pass, one ratio that is often overlooked is the Net Present Valu (NPV).
The NPV method accounts for inflation and investment assumptions while the simple payback method doesn't. When deciding whether to invest in a project, lenders should consider both. Both of these calculations are crucial in deciding whether or not to invest in a project.
References
 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00137919308903111
 https://www.divaportal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:831159