Difference Between Gross Income and Net Income

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: April 30, 2023


Difference Between Gross Income and Net Income

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The distinction is that they all represent income at various points throughout the production and revenue cycle. Terms like gross profit, operational profit, and net income are used to discuss a company's earnings.

Gross Income vs Net Income

You may determine a person's net income by deducting all of their expenses from their gross income, excluding their workplace, administrative, and sales and distribution costs, interest, and taxes, as well as any damages and other outgoings. This will give you their net income (like dividends). When referring to a person's gross income, one means the sum of all of his income from all sources.

Net income is the amount of income left over after subtracting expenses from revenues. The primary distinction between gross income and net income is that gross income refers to income before production and distribution expenses are subtracted.

Businesses frequently use the terms "gross income" and "net income" to refer to profit. Both terms can be used to refer to the monthly income or outgoings of a household.

Net income for an individual is the total amount of income that is still available after paying for all personal expenses. The total amount of income earned less the total amount of personal expenses yields personal net income. This is different from gross income, which limits what may be deducted from the overall amount of money generated. Even though they likely have additional expenses beyond what is deducted from their pay, a person's final paycheck is a better indicator of how costs are affecting their income than their total income.

Net income for a company is calculated as total revenue less total expenses. Similar to gross income, these costs include the cost of the products sold. However, selling, general, administrative, tax, interest, and other costs not taken into account in determining gross income are also included in net income. While net income takes into account all costs, gross income offers a much more comprehensive picture of a business.

Difference Between Gross Income and Net Income in Tabular Form

Parameters of Comparison Gross Income Net Income
Significance Before any deductions are made, income is measured in terms of gross income. It is, in essence, the income before any adjustments. The amount that is left over after taxes and other deductions is known as net income.
Which one is higher Since no deductions are done, gross income always exceeds net income. On the other hand, because of tax and other deductions, net income is less.
Dependency In actuality, because gross income is the unprocessed portion of income, it is independent of its peers. The key distinction between the two numbers is that of net income because gross income was the foundation upon which it was first conceptualized.
Expense Deduction A corporation relies on gross income for calculating its operating costs. While all of a company's non-operational expenses are taken into account when calculating net income.
Recorded at Gross income is always mentioned at the top of an income statement when it is taken into account. Net income, on the other hand, is listed last.

What is Gross Income?

When referring to a person's gross income, one means the sum of all of his income from all sources. The total amount of the corporation's receipts minus the various expenses incurred in producing and delivering goods to their current location and status is the gross income. Depending on the context, the term "gross income" can refer to both the salary of an employee and the revenue of a business.

The cost of goods sold for the accounting cycle is subtracted from the company's overall income to determine a corporation's gross profit. After deducting manufacturing and sales expenses, a company's earnings are expressed as its cost of goods sold (COGS) (COGS). According to gross profit, businesses are better at managing production expenses like labor and materials to make money by selling their products and services.

The sum of an individual's earnings before taxes or other deductions is their gross income, which is also referred to as their gross pay on a paycheck. This covers earnings from all sources, not just employment, and is not restricted to earnings in cash; it also covers earnings from the receipt of goods or services.

For businesses, the terms gross income, gross margin, and gross profit are interchangeable. On the income statement, a company's gross income is calculated as total revenue less the cost of goods sold.

  • A person's total income is made up of their wages and salaries as well as other sources of income like dividends, interest, pensions, and rental income.
  • Individual gross income is included in an income tax return and becomes adjusted gross income after certain deductions and exemptions, which is then converted into taxable income.
  • When applying for a loan, people might also need to disclose their gross income.
  • Gross income, as opposed to net income, is frequently used by businesses to assess the performance of their products.

Gross revenue comprises various components, both for an individual and a corporation. An individual can rapidly ascertain their gross income by checking a recent pay stub or calculating their hours and remuneration. As an alternative, there may be more computations involved in determining a company's gross income.

When determining whether a person is qualified to be a borrower or tenant, lenders and landlords look at their gross income. When filing federal and state income taxes, gross income is the starting point before deducting deductions to determine the amount of tax due.

Businesses use a metric called gross income to evaluate the effectiveness of their product-specific activities. By using gross income and limiting the costs that are included in the analysis, a corporation can better understand what causes success or failure. For instance, a business would prefer not to see unrelated administrative expenses like rent included in the performance of a particular product line.

Individual Gross Income

When calculating a person's gross income for tax purposes, the IRS takes into account all sources of income, not just wages and salaries, including tips, capital gains, rental payments, dividends, alimony, pensions, and interest. The adjusted gross income is what remains after above-the-line tax deductions are subtracted.

Several income sources are not considered gross income for tax reasons but may nonetheless be taken into account when a lender or creditor computes gross income. Some Social Security benefits, life insurance payouts, some inheritances or gifts, and interest on state or municipal bonds are common nontaxable income sources.

Individuals typically use their gross income, which includes all of their wages, for non-tax purposes. Individuals' gross income, which is taken into account when applying for a loan, is the amount they make before any taxes or other expenses are subtracted. Some lenders might demand that AGI be used to standardize gross income calculations.

What is Net Income?

It reflects the quantity that is left after all adjustments (i.e., Provisions). It includes rental income as well as asset sale profits. This may become quite complicated in large businesses. As a result, the bookkeeper and accountant should decide how to allocate revenues and expenses by the nature and context of their respective jobs.

This will give you their net income (like dividends). Net income can refer to either a person's or a company's income. You may determine a person's net income by deducting all of their expenses from their gross income, excluding their workplace, administrative, and sales and distribution costs, interest, and taxes, as well as any damages and other outgoings.

Within each fiscal year, an estimate of net income per year is usual. Typical deductions include income tax, financing expenditure (interest expense), and associated interest.

Net income is the amount of money a corporation has made after deducting all necessary business costs. Investors can use net income to assess a company's profitability. Learn more about net income and its impact on stock price in the next paragraphs. Net income is the entire revenue generated by a company after deducting all expenses, charges, and taxes. Operating expenses, interest on loans and debts, administrative costs, income taxes, and depreciation of assets like firm equipment are all included in costs and fees. Even though not all of those expenses might be relevant for every business, those that reduce net income. Investors evaluate a company's profitability by looking at its net income. Sales growth or a reduction in operating expenses both increase net income.

Because net income is the most accurate indicator of a company's profitability, the terms "net income" and "profit" are frequently used interchangeably. The term "profit," however, is frequently used to describe a company's revenue at any point on the income statement.

A negative net income is possible. A corporation would have a negative net income if its expenses during that period exceeded its revenue. The amount of money a company brought in before deducting the majority of its expenses, on the other hand, means that gross income can never be negative.

Even with a negative net income, a business can still be regarded as profitable. A negative net income is not always a bad thing.

If a company's revenue follows a cyclical schedule, which means that profits are made during part of each quarter but not all of it, the company may have negative net income. During one or two quarters when fewer clients are looking to travel at that time of year, a travel agency may post a negative net income.

However, if they generate enough revenue in the other two quarters to offset their losses, they can still have a positive yearly net income. A developing business may also choose to have a loss on its books.

In the beginning, start-ups frequently have a negative net income because they prioritize raising capital rather than just concentrating on profitability. Some new businesses wait years before aiming for positive net incomes.

How is Net Income Calculated?

Gross income is tallied and then costs and fees, such as taxes, are subtracted. On a company's annual or quarterly financial report, this is occasionally noted as Net Income After Taxes (NIAT). Since net income and NIAT are frequently used interchangeably, it is crucial to bring up taxes when discussing net income before taxes. Pretax net income can be used to compare two businesses that are identical but are taxed differently. This might happen if two businesses in the same sector are located in different states or nations.

How to Locate Net Income on a Balance Sheet for a Company?

The balance sheet of an organization does not explicitly display net income. A company's net income can be calculated from its balance sheet using the following straightforward but effective formula:

Revenue – Expenses = Net Income

On a company's income statement, net income can be found directly. This is a similar document that displays the financial position of a business over a previous period, such as a fiscal quarter or year. Because it appears at the bottom of an organization's income statement, net income is frequently referred to as the "bottom line."

How Does Net Income Affect Stock Price?

Positive net income can influence a company's share price, but it is not always the primary factor in stock price. The performance of a corporation is one of several elements influencing the stock price. An increase in net income can be a sign of both a profitable company and prosperous economic conditions.

Share prices may increase due to either of these circumstances. A company's stock price may decline even while it reports a rise in net income. This frequently occurs when traders decide that outside variables, including regulatory actions, are more significant than the company's existing positive net income.

Main Differences Between Gross Income and Net Income in Points

  1. Gross income is always reported at the top of an income statement when it is taken into account. Net income, on the other hand, is mentioned last (due to all the deductions made).
  2. A corporation relies on gross income when calculating its operating costs. While all of a company's non-operational expenses are taken into account when calculating net income.


The gross profit for the relevant period will decrease if an increase in revenue is more than offset by an increase in production costs (like labor). A company's profitability may be managed together with its production and labor costs using gross income. Therefore, a crucial indicator to use is to look at sales, cost of production, labor costs, and performance to determine the causes of a company's earnings growth or decline.


  • https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/roiw.12233


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"Difference Between Gross Income and Net Income." Diffzy.com, 2024. Fri. 19 Jul. 2024. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-gross-income-and-net-income-1119>.

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