Difference Between Yield to Maturity and Rate of Return

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: September 14, 2022


Difference Between Yield to Maturity and Rate of Return Difference Between Yield to Maturity and Rate of Return

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The act of allocating resources, primarily cash, with the hope of eventually making a profit. One can invest by beginning a business or buying an asset, and the outcome of the first investment will depend on whether it is profitable or unsuccessful. Bond yield is also the anticipated return on a bond.

Yield to Maturity vs Rate of Return

Yield of Maturity and Rate of Return differ primarily in that the former controls an investment over the course of its whole life. The bond investors' level of interest is established by the latter. Additionally, the yield to maturity of bonds will be significantly impacted by the return on bonds at any particular time.

The term "yield to maturity" can also refer to a bond's redemption yield or book yield. The internal rate of return estimation is kept until it reaches maturity. In addition, it only represents the internal rate of return of a bond investment provided the investor maintains the bond until it matures, after making all scheduled payments and reinvesting the proceeds at the same rate.

The rate of return, on the other hand, is defined as the total gain or loss of an investor's investment over a specific time period. Additionally, it is the annual percentage of profit made on an investment; this information helps one to comprehend the strength of investing in a specific asset.

The profitability of an investment over a predetermined time period, often annually, can be determined in two separate ways: yield and return. While the return is the amount that was made or lost on an investment over time, it is normally given as a dollar number, the yield is the income that an investment returns over time, usually expressed as a percentage.

Difference Between Yield to Maturity and Rate of Return in Tabular Form

Table: Yield to Maturity vs Rate of Return
Parameters of Comparison
Yield to Maturity
Rate of Return
Yield to maturity, which assumes interest is paid and held until maturity, is a single interest rate offered to investors at current market values. In other words, if a bond is kept until maturity, all future cash inflows are distributed to the holder at the bond's current price, or YTM.
The rate of return is the total profit or loss an investor makes on an investment over a predetermined time period or until maturity. Any type of asset, including bonds, properties, and stocks, among others, is subject to the rate of return.
Risk Factor
In any event, if the yield to maturity is lower than anticipated for another investment, the investor may change their mind.
The rate of return is impacted by market risk. In such case the investor would profit if the market price was high. However, investors lose money if assets' market prices are low. Additionally, there is a risk to ROR when capital is lost.
Yield to maturity= the number of years to maturity root of (face value/current price – 1)
Rate of Return= the investment’s current value – its initial value) divided by the initial value; all times 100
The bond value may be calculated using any one of three YTM types: yield to call, yield to put, and yield to worst.
There are four different categories of return rates: annualised return, logarithmic return, money-weighted return, external flows return, and IRR.
One interest rate, or internal rate of return, is represented by the yield to maturity. It is the total of upcoming cash inflows that add up to the bond's current market price. The interest rate that accounts for internal factors alone is the IRR.
The rate of return is the interest that an investor pays on the assets over time, either in whole or in instalments, until the assets are actually in the owner's possession.
Other names
Bond yield and redemption yield are other names for yield to maturity.
The total return, capital return, annualised return, and net return are other names for rate of return.

What is Yield to Maturity?

In addition, yield to maturity is described as the investor's internal rate of return on the investment; in other words, the buyer in today's market will expect that the bond will be kept until its maturity, with payments and coupons being issued on schedule. It also establishes the market convention's yearly percentage rate of investment. likewise contrasts bonds with various maturities and coupons.

Until your bond matures, with all coupons and principal payments made on time. Yield to maturity fears. Other names for it include book yield and redemption yield. By dividing the annual cash inflows from a bond by the market, the yield to maturity function calculates the amount of money to be invested on keeping and purchasing a bond for one year. Simply put, it facilitates the ability to compare the market price of a bond with the present value of all future cash flows.

The number of years to maturity root of (face value/current price - 1) is used to determine the yield to maturity of a discount bond. In this case, the face value represents the bond's maturity value and the current price its worth right now.

Understanding Yield to Maturity (YTM)

Yield to maturity is comparable to current yield, which calculates how much money would be made by purchasing and keeping a bond for a year by dividing annual cash inflows from that bond by its market price. However, YTM takes into account the present value of a bond's future coupon payments, unlike current yield. In other words, it takes into account the time worth of money, whereas a straightforward computation of current yield does not. As a result, it is frequently seen as a more accurate way to determine a bond's return.

To grasp some of the more intricate problems with coupon bonds, a good place to start is with the YTM of a discount bond that doesn't pay a coupon.

Yield to Maturity: Uses (YTM)

In order to determine whether purchasing bonds is a wise investment, yield to maturity can be quite helpful. An investor will decide on the necessary yield (the return on a bond that will make the bond worthwhile). An investor can decide whether a bond is a good investment by comparing the YTM and the needed yield of a bond they are considering purchasing.

Variation to Yield to Maturity

Before you start your research on a certain topic, there are a number of frequent variants that are important to keep in mind. These are what they are:

Yield to call is a version that relies on the bond being repurchased by the issuer before to the bond's maturity date. A shorter cash flow period is the outcome. Bonds in this sort of variation have the lowest yields from YTM and its variant and can be repurchased, placed, or swapped.

With this specific version, the bond's holder has the option to sell the bond back at a set price and on a specific date.

What is the Rate to Return?

The net gain or loss of an investment over a predetermined period is calculated using the rate of return. In other words, it represents the pace at which the investment's paydown cost is incurred. The percentage change from the start of the period to the conclusion of your investment is represented by the rate of return.

Assets, stocks, property, works of art, and even bonds are all subject to it. The rate of return is defined as the transformation of a return into a return over a period of time of a specified duration. The rate of return is projected using the combined data from one period and after.

In this situation, the ratio of the difference between the final value, which includes dividends and interest, and the initial value to that value is used to determine the rate of return for a single period of any length of time. Additionally, it keeps track of the investor's holdings, including interest payments, coupons, cash dividends, stock dividends, structured products, and other financial returns when deciding on an investment.

Rate of Return (RoR) on Stocks and Bonds

Calculating the rate of return for stocks and bonds differs slightly. Let's say a shareholder purchases a share of stock for $60, holds it for five years, and receives a total of $10 in dividends. If the stock is sold for $80, the investor will have made $20 per share ($80 - $60). He has also received dividend income of $10, for a total gain of $20 + $10 = $30. Thus, the stock's rate of return is equal to 50% of the $60 cost per share divided by the $30 gain per share.

On the other hand, imagine an investor who spends $1,000 on a bond with a $1,000 par value and a 5% coupon.

The investment generates an annual interest income of $50. The investor's rate of return is calculated as the $100 gain on sale plus the $100 interest income divided by the $1,000 initial cost, or 20%, if the bond is sold for $1,100 in premium value and the investor earns a total of $100 in interest.

Examples of bond rate of return calculation

In contrast, if you own a $100,000 bond with a 5% interest rate that matures in four years, you will get $5000 in interest each year (bond value multiplied by interest rate). If you sell the bond for $120,000 after a year, the bond's growth, or appreciation, was $20,000 during that time (subtract original bond value from new bond value).

The interest plus appreciation divided by the initial bond price, stated as a percentage, is used to calculate the rate of return. 25 percent is the percentage of return after a year ($5000 plus $20,000 divided by $100,000 multiplied by 100).

Main Differences Between Yield to Maturity and Rate of Return in Points

  • A bond or debenture's yield to maturity is its single interest rate of return, whereas the rate of return is the net return—profit or loss—that an investor receives on their investment.
  • If the interest or coupon payments have been made on schedule and the bond is held until maturity, the beneficiary receives the yield to maturity or bond-yield sum. On the other hand, the recipient won't receive the rate of return until the investment reaches maturity or the interest has been paid.
  • A discount bond's yield to maturity is determined by taking the square root of (face value/current price - 1) divided by the number of years to maturity. Additionally, the rate of return is calculated as the current price of investment (minus) initial investment value (whole division) by initial investment value, multiplied by 100.
  • Book yield and redemption yield are terms used to describe yield to maturity. Even so, other names for rate of return include capital value, net return, and annualised return.
  • Yield to maturity is an internal rate of return that eliminates external risk. It is defined as future cash inflows at the current market price. While the amount paid in instalments for the rate of return is used to calculate interest.
  • When an investor expects to change their mind due to a lower return than anticipated, the risk of Yield to Maturity depends on competitors' investments. In contrast, rate of return risk is influenced by capital and market price.


Yield to maturity, which assumes interest or coupon payments have been planned and the bond has been kept to maturity, is similar to a bond yield delivered to the investor at a current market price on the basis of an internal rate of return. If the investor changes their investment because the return was less than anticipated, the yield to maturity could be at risk.The overall value of the investor's profit or loss on the investment he or she made, such as assets, real estate, bonds, or stock, etc., is known as the rate of return. Simply put, the investor receives the investment sum on the investment they have been making in instalments. If both the market price and the capital value are declining, the rate of return will be in jeopardy.


  • https://www.jstor.org/stable/2326906
  • https://www.jstor.org/stable/1924568


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"Difference Between Yield to Maturity and Rate of Return." Diffzy.com, 2023. Mon. 20 Mar. 2023. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-yield-to-maturity-and-rate-647>.

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