Difference Between Euro and Dollar

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: July 28, 2023


Difference Between Euro and Dollar

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The global economy operates in the exchange of multiple currencies. In this exchange of currencies, the US dollar and Euro are the most prominent contributors. They are chosen as the best in international trade and finance. Despite some similarities, they are competitors of each other. This poses many differences between these two currencies. In this article, we will discuss the differences between the Euro and Dollar in great depth, to reach a particular point where both these currencies hold a significant position in the global economy.

In the upcoming part, we will discuss the major differences between Euro and Dollar.

Euro vs. Dollar

The major and most important difference between Euro and Dollar is that both of them are currencies of different countries. Euro belongs to the countries in the Eurozone. And the dollar belongs to the United States of America. The Dollar was established in the Coinage Act of 1792 and till today it is the most prominent player. Whereas, the Euro was established in 1999, as the official currency of the Eurozone, where 20 out of 27 member nations use the DuEuro as their currency. And there are some countries outside the Eurozone that follow the Euro as their currency. Though, till today Euro has been the strongest rival of the US Dollar.

Difference Between Euro and Dollar in Tabular Form

Parameters of ComparisonEuroDollar
DefinitionThe main currency of 20 eurozone states and other non-eurozone countries.The main currency of the United States and its various territories.
SymbolThe symbol of the Euro is €.The symbol of the Dollar is $.
Governing BankThe European Central Bank manages the Euro, and it lies in Frankfurt.The Federal Reserve administers and manages the Euro.
Denominations of coins and notesThe banknotes of Euro are in the denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500. And the cent coins of the Euro are in the denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50.The banknotes of Dollar are in the denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100. And the cent coins of the Dollar are in the denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50.
NicknamesEuro has various nicknames like Quid, Ouro, Ewro, and Ege.Dollar has various nicknames like Buck and Greenback.
SizeEuro notes have different colors and sizes depending on the denomination. Thus, making it easy to distinguish.Dollar notes are all of similar colors and sizes, only the front portrait and denomination changes.

What is Euro?

Euro is the official currency of the Eurozone. It is followed as the national currency by 20 members of the European Union out of 27 nations. Furthermore, there are microstates that have monetary agreements with the Euro, including Vatican City, Andorra, San Marino, and Monaco. It was first introduced as an electronic currency in 1999. Later, in 2002 euro banknotes and coins were introduced. And the Euro is managed by the European Central Bank (ECB). Euro is symbolized by the sign "€".

Importance of the Euro in the Global Financial Landscape

Euro, since its inception, came to be known as one of the most crucial global currencies. It forms a significant position in international trade, finance and reserve holdings. The Eurozone is the second-largest economy in the world. It has a vast effect on the financial markets and in global economic stability. It also affects the countries outside the Eurozone. Any strength or weakness in the Euro can affect the exchange rates, interest rates and inflation in many regions.

Euro Convergence Criteria

To adopt the Euro as the currency a country requires to meet specific requirements. And it is referred to as the "convergence criteria". The criteria were mentioned in the Maastricht Treaty. And it was aimed to ensure Economic Stability and convergence among the member nations. The criteria state the following points:

  1. Price Stability - Low and stable inflation rates must be provided, to ensure price Stability in the Eurozone. And the average inflation should not increase by 1.5 percentage points, comparing the rate with the three best-performing nations.
  2. Sound public finances - Every government must maintain discipline. The budget deficits must not increase by 3% of the GDP. And the public debt levels must not increase 60% of the GDP.
  3. Exchange Rate Stability - The country must at least participate in the ERM II or Exchange Rate Mechanism for a minimum of 2 years, to avoid currency fluctuations.
  4. Long-term interest rates - It should not exceed 2% points, in comparison to the three best-performing nations.

European Central Bank (ECB)

The central bank of the Eurozone. It takes the overall responsibility of maintaining price stability among the member nations. And it is also responsible for defining the monetary policy of the Eurozone. It was established back in 1998. Though, it became operational on 1 January 1999. There are some key roles played by the ECB:

  1. Monetary policy- The initial goal of the ECB is to maintain price stability in the Eurozone. It focuses on keeping the inflation rate below and close to 2% over the medium term. To achieve this, it sets interest rates and conducts open market operations.
  2. Currency Insurance - ECB has the complete authority to issue Euro banknotes to the member nations. It coordinates with the member nation's central bank, to supply an adequate amount of notes and coins.
  3. Banking supervision - ECB works with the supervisory authorities of member nations, to control the banking system of the Eurozone. This Single Supervisory Mechanism was established back in 2014.
  4. Financial Stability - It monitors financial stability across Europe. And it has the authority to take various measures to protect the financial system.
  5. Exchange Rate Policy - ECB also assesses the exchange rate of the Euro in the Eurozone, as the exchange rate is responsible for inflation and economic conditions.

Advantages of a Common Currency

Adopting the same currency across the Eurozone has brought certain benefits across the member nations:

  1. Facilitation of Trades - The exchange rates among the member nations have been excluded, which offers smooth trade. And it has also increased trade volumes, as cross-border transactions have become easier and safer.
  2. Price transparency - Due to a single currency, consumers can easily compare the prices among various member nations. This leads to more efficient markets and lower prices of goods and services. Overall, it promotes price transparency among the whole Euro-adopted nations.
  3. Reduced Currency Risks - The elimination of currency fluctuations has reduced risks for businesses and investors. It helps in fostering a better business environment.
  4. Facilitation of Travel and Tourism - If there is the same currency in multiple nations, then it eliminates the issue of currency exchange for travellers. Thus, promoting tourism and travel across the whole Euro-adopted nations.
  5. Lower financing costs - The adoption of the same currency has led to reduced financial costs for governments. The elimination of exchange rate risk and proper integration of the financial market has helped in reducing interest rates.

What is Dollar?

Dollar is also one of the most influential currencies in the world. It helps in shaping global economies, trade, and financial systems. The dollar is denoted by the symbol "$". It has become the most influential reserve currency in the world.

What is a Reserve Currency?

A foreign currency held in quantities by the central banks and governments, as part of the foreign exchange reserves. It provides liquidity and stability in international finance. The dollar, it accounts for a significant portion of global foreign exchange reserves. A currency to become a reserve currency, it must offer liquidity, provide stability and trust, be widely accepted, and have a good economic size.

Benefits of Dollar as Reserve Currency

There are certain benefits of being a Reserve Currency, and those are

  1. Seigniorage - The country, that offers the currency enjoys extensive seigniorage revenue. In the case of the Dollar, the United States generates revenue out of this. They issue currency at a face value higher than the production cost. And thus, printing dollars at a lower cost and enjoying the revenue after generating it.
  2. Reduced Borrowing costs - As dollars are a reserve currency, American corporations can borrow dollars at a low-interest rate. And foreign investors also focus on holding US assets, which drives the US treasury bonds.
  3. Global Influence - As the dollar is the primary reserve currency of the world, it strengthens the US geopolitical effects. And it also allows the US government to impose sanctions on various countries, as they have access to the dollar.

Challenges Faced by Dollar as Reserve Currency

Though, there are certain challenges faced by the dollar as a reserve currency, and those are:

  1. Rise of competing Currencies - The euro has become the second most known reserve currency, after the dollar. And also the China Yuan is also on the list, which aims to use the currency in global trade and finance.
  2. Shifts in Global Economic Power - As many countries from Asia are increasing their influence in the global market, there can be a shift in the dollar-centric system in the near future.
  3. Geopolitical Factors - If there are geopolitical disputes with the US, then they can seek alternatives to the dollar and decrease the dependency in US financial systems.
  4. Digital Currencies and Technology - Due to the rise of Digital Currencies and cryptocurrencies, there can be threats to the dollar's dominance.

Why is the Dollar Attractive?

There are certain factors associated with this question, and those are:

  1. Large and Diverse Economy - The United States has the world's largest economy. They have a diverse range of industries, like finance, technology, agriculture, and manufacturing. This makes the dollar attractive.
  2. Economic Stability and Rule of Law - The United States has a stable economy and a strong legal framework. This allows the investors to conduct transactions in dollars, which is backed by a well-regulated economy.
  3. Size and depth of Financial Markets - The United States financial market is the most liquid in the world. This depth in the market helps investors to easily buy and sell.
  4. Global Trade Currency - Oil and Gold are mostly priced and traded in dollars. Thus, making it essential for international trade. This becomes one of the key points for the dollar becoming a global trade currency.
  5. Alliances and Security Guarantees - The US government has many strategic alliances with multiple countries. It includes security Guarantees and defence partnerships. This helps in the stability of the US currency.
  6. Enforcement of Sanctions - The use of financial sanctions has contributed to the dollar's dominance. Countries often bound to the sanctions, face restrictions while accessing the dollar financial system. Thus, forcing entities to comply with US policies.
  7. Monetary Policy - The US central bank (Federal Reserve) plays one of the most crucial roles in increasing the dollar's value. It has the power to change monetary policy, which affects inflation, interest rates, and other economic conditions.
  8. Lender of Last Resort - The central bank of the US acts as a lender during a financial crisis. It provides liquidity to the markets and stabilizes the economy. This improves confidence in the Dollar.

Therefore, the US Dollar has a big influence on the global financial markets. And this makes the Dollar the most used currency worldwide.

Difference Between Euro and Dollar (In Points)

  • The US dollar was first introduced in the 18th Century. Whereas, the Euro was introduced in 1999. To be more precise, the Dollar was first introduced in the Coinage Act of 1792.
  • The exchange rate of the Dollar always changes, depending upon the market. Whereas, the exchange rate of Euro doesn't face any fluctuations within the Eurozone.
  • The US Dollar is a reserve currency. Whereas, the Euro is not a reserve currency.
  • The US dollar plays an important role in global trade and finance. Whereas, Euro serves as an economic integration within the Eurozone only.
  • The Euro has common designs on its banknotes within the Eurozone. Whereas, the US dollar has a variety of designs.
  • The adoption of Dollar as the official currency by a country is known as Dollarization. Whereas adopting Euro as their currency is known as Euroization.


The article discusses about the importance of the Euro in the global financial landscape. Combining the Euro convergence criteria, and the role of the European Central Bank (ECB) in managing the currency.

Also, it explains the benefits and challenges faced by the US Dollar. While being as a reserve currency, role of the Federal Reserve, factors that make the Dollar attractive, and its influence on the global financial markets.

Overall, the article provides a thorough comparison between the Euro and the US Dollar. By highlighting their significance and differences on the basis of global economy. However, it is crucial to ensure that the information is accurate and up-to-date. Because the global economic landscape and currency dynamics can change over time.


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"Difference Between Euro and Dollar." Diffzy.com, 2024. Sun. 19 May. 2024. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-euro-and-dollar>.

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