Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: September 14, 2022

       

Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry

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Introduction

In the last 3,000 years, chemistry has been an ancient subject in which human understanding has expanded tremendously. In the last several centuries, however, scientists have achieved some of their most significant advances in the study of chemicals. In fact, it wasn't until the 17th century that scientists understood the distinction between organic and inorganic chemistry.

The phrases "organic" and "inorganic" have distinct meanings in chemistry than when discussing food and vegetables. Organic and inorganic chemistry are based on organic and inorganic substances, respectively. Organic chemists investigate organic compounds, their production, and intermolecular reactions. Inorganic chemists investigate all other forms of matter, such as salts, metals, and minerals.

The primary distinction between the two types of chemicals is that organic compounds always include carbon, whereas the majority of inorganic compounds do not. Because there are inorganic compounds that include carbon, the presence of carbon alone is not sufficient to designate a chemical as organic! Organic substances have carbon atoms linked to hydrogen atoms to form C-H bonds, with very few exceptions. Numerous organic molecules include oxygen atoms as well.

Organic Chemistry vs. Inorganic Chemistry

Chemistry is the study of anything that has mass and occupies space (matter), coupled with its composition and structure. Chemistry is one of the scientific disciplines, and it encompasses several subjects. Organic and inorganic chemistry are among these disciplines.Organic chemistry is the study of carbon and its molecules, which are known as organic compounds. In contrast, inorganic chemistry is the study of all other molecules, known collectively as inorganic compounds. Organic and inorganic chemistry are significant to science because they enable the study of molecular structure and behaviour.

In general, a compound is a material formed by the symbiotic interaction of components. An element is a material in chemistry that cannot be broken down into simpler forms. An element can be categorised as a metal (e.g., sodium), non-metal (e.g., sulphur), metalloid (an element possessing properties of both metal and non-metal, e.g., boron), or gas (e.g., hydrogen). It is known that metals and metalloids may create organometallic compounds with carbon. So, an organometallic compound is made when the chemistry of organic (carbon in an organic part) and inorganic (metal or metalloid in an inorganic part) parts come together.

Originally, chemicals were classified according to their origin. In contrast, organic substances are formed from life, whereas inorganic substances are not. Consequently, all compounds derived from minerals and other nonliving sources were classified as inorganic. In contrast, all substances that arose from life, such as plants and animals, were classified as organic substances. This strategy has changed since it was shown that some organic chemicals, like nylon, can be made from inorganic and nonliving sources.

Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry in Tabular Form

Table: Organic Chemistry vs. Inorganic Chemistry
Parameter of comparison
Organic Chemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
Definition
Organic chemistry looks at all compounds that are made of or contain carbon and how they react with other chemicals or elements like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Inorganic chemistry looks at the structure and behaviour of compounds that don't have carbon, as well as how they react with other elements.
Chemical bonding
The majority of organic molecules contain ionic bonds.
The majority of inorganic substances include covalent bonds within their atomic structure.
Type of chemical Reaction
Observations in the field of organic chemistry include combustion, fermentation, hydrogenation, and photochemistry.
Processes in inorganic chemistry that can be seen include oxidation, crystallization, electrical conduction, and both endothermic and exothermic reactions.
Scope of fundamental knowledge
The breadth of knowledge gained while studying organic chemistry includes knowledge of the structures of biological materials and how they are impacted by interactions with other chemicals, such as comprehending the effects of medications.
Inorganic chemistry is the study of the structure and properties of nonliving things and the making of different chemicals.
Chemical
Compounds are put into groups based on their functional groups, which are groups of atoms inside molecules that change how the compounds usually react chemically.
Compounds are classified into the basic categories of acid, base, salt, and metal.
Salt Formation
Due to the covalence of carbon, molecules cannot create salt through organic chemistry.
By the use of inorganic chemistry, substances are able to produce salt.

What Does Organic Chemistry Entail?

Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and synthesis of carbon-based compounds like hydrocarbons and compounds with other elements like hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, sulfur, and phosphorus.

The study of structure determines their chemical composition and formula, while the study of properties includes chemical and physical properties and the evaluation of chemical reactivity in order to comprehend their behaviour, and finally, the study of organic reactions involves the chemical synthesis of natural products, drugs, and polymers.

What Does Inorganic Chemistry Entail?

Inorganic chemistry is the study of compounds and elements' production, reactivity, structure, and characteristics. The subject is usually taught after an introduction to organic chemistry. This is because it includes fields like synthetic coordination, organometallic chemistry, bioinorganic chemistry, nanomaterials, and solid-state materials, which have effects in areas like catalysis, drug design, functional materials, and energy technologies.

Inorganic compounds are also present in biological systems, where they play a crucial role in life processes. Inorganic chemists are usually interested in all of the elements in the periodic table, but they pay special attention to the transition metals.

What is the role of inorganic chemists?

Inorganic chemists work in a variety of industries, from mining to microchips. Their work is founded on comprehension.

  • The behaviour of inorganic elements and their equivalents, and
  • How these substances may be altered, separated, and utilised

Various tasks may include:

  • Developing techniques for metal recovery from sewage streams
  • Analyzing mined ores as an analytical chemist
  • Conducting studies into the use of inorganic compounds for soil treatment

Numerous inorganic chemists operate in the private sector, as well as in university institutions and government laboratories. Inorganic chemists who work for the government say they are spending more and more time writing grant proposals and competing for research funding.

The jobs of inorganic chemists are comparable to those of materials scientists and physicists. All three investigate the connection between physical qualities and functions. However, an inorganic chemist is more concerned with the molecular level of these qualities.

Organic and inorganic chemistry Differences

Organic chemistry is the study of all compounds that are made of or contain carbon and how they react with other chemicals or elements like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.Inorganic chemistry, on the other hand, looks at the structure and properties of molecules that don't contain carbon, as well as how they interact with other elements.

Chemical adhesion

In their atomic structure, the majority of organic chemistry molecules contain ionic bonds, while the majority of inorganic compounds have covalent connections. A covalent bond is a chemical relationship in which electron pairs are shared between atoms. Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that happens when two ions with opposite charges are attracted to each other by their electric fields.

Chemical reaction types

Inorganic chemistry processes include oxidation, crystallization, electrical conduction, and endothermic and exothermic reactions. Organic chemistry processes include combustion, fermentation, hydrogenation, and photochemistry.

The breadth of essential knowledge

The breadth of knowledge gained while studying organic chemistry includes knowledge of the structure of biological materials and how they are influenced by their interactions with other chemicals, such as the effects of medications. In contrast, the breadth of knowledge gained while studying inorganic chemistry includes an understanding of the structure and properties of non-living materials as well as the synthesis of various molecules.

Examples of compounds within the study's scope

Organic chemistry studies compounds such as sucrose, methane, DNA, benzene, cellulose, hair, fingernails, butter, enzymes, coal, and ethanol, among others. Inorganic compounds, like sodium chloride, argon, silver, brass, sulphur, diamond, carbides, phosgene, carbon disulfide, and cyanides, are studied in organic chemistry.

Classification by Substance

In organic chemistry, compounds are categorised according to their functional groups (functional groups are particular groupings of atoms inside molecules that influence the typical chemical reactions of certain molecules). However, when it comes to inorganic chemistry, compounds are classified into four basic categories: acid, base, salt, and metal.

Sodium Formation

Due to the covalence of carbon, compounds cannot generate salt through organic chemistry, but they may do so through inorganic chemistry.

Similarities

Based on the same idea, both fields of chemistry report similar chemical reactions.

Organic and inorganic chemistry both include practical considerations.

The phrases "organic" and "inorganic" have distinct meanings in chemistry than when discussing food and vegetables. Organic and inorganic chemistry are based on organic and inorganic substances, respectively. Organic chemists investigate organic compounds, their production, and intermolecular reactions. Inorganic chemists investigate all other forms of matter, such as salts, metals, and minerals.

The primary distinction between the two types of chemicals is that organic compounds always include carbon, whereas the majority of inorganic compounds do not. Because there are inorganic compounds that include carbon, the presence of carbon alone is not sufficient to designate a chemical as organic! Organic substances have carbon atoms linked to hydrogen atoms to form C-H bonds, with very few exceptions. Numerous organic molecules include oxygen atoms as well.

Illustrations of Organic Compounds

Organic molecules are those that are produced by living creatures. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are the primary types of organic substances.

These are examples of organic substances.

  • Sucrose (table sugar), C12H22O11
  • Methane and CH4
  • DNA
  • Benzene, C6H6
  • Ethanol (grain alcohol), C2H6O
  • Coal
  • Hair and nail polish (keratin protein)
  • Cellulose
  • Butter
  • Enzymes
  • Compounds devoid of C-H bonds

There are a few carbon-containing organic molecules, but no C-H bonds. Examples include:

  • Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4,
  • Urea, CO(NH2)2

Illustrations of Inorganic Compounds

All pure elements, salts, numerous acids and bases, metals and alloys, and minerals are inorganic things. Inorganic compounds are made when a chemical bond is made between an element other than carbon and hydrogen.

The following are examples of inorganic compounds:

  • Sodium chloride (table salt) (NaCl)
  • Brass
  • Glass and quartz (SiO2)
  • Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
  • H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)
  • Inorganic Molecules, Including Carbon
  • A small number of inorganic substances include carbon. These include oxides, carbides, some carbonates, and certain cyanides.
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Cyanides (C-N bond)
  • Carbides (e.g., boron carbide, B4C)
  • Carbon disulfide (CS2)
  • Phosgene (COCl2)

Note that hydrogen cyanide, HCN, includes both carbon and hydrogen. Because of the connection between carbon and nitrogen, it is often regarded as an inorganic molecule. Pure carbon consists of diamond, graphite, and graphene. They are non-living.

Organic and inorganic substances

Pure elements are neither organic nor inorganic compounds since they are not compounds.

  • Argon (Ar)
  • Silver (Ag)
  • Sulfur (S)
  • Carbon (C)

Not all organics originate in life.

The majority of organic compounds are produced by living organisms, although other molecules may arise through other mechanisms. For instance, the presence of organic chemicals on Mars or within a nebula is not always indicative of extraterrestrial life. The energy needed to change inorganic chemicals into organic ones can come from the sun's rays.

Let's examine the distinction between an organic and an inorganic chemical by comparing two samples. Sample A, potassium permanganate, does not have a single carbon atom; this sample represents our inorganic molecule. Sample B, alizarin, is an organic substance since it includes several carbon atoms.

Let's investigate the numerous distinctions between organic and inorganic chemistry by comparing the following characteristics:

  • Chemical structure
  • Chemical classification
  • Scientific purpose

Principal Variations: Chemical Structure

As previously stated, the primary distinction between organic and inorganic chemistry is the structure of the researched substances. The structure of an organic molecule must have at least one carbon atom. However, you should not be startled if you observe other elements, such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Inorganic substances, in contrast, lack carbon atoms in their structures.

Despite this significant distinction between organic and inorganic chemistry,

There is a tiny issue that requires our attention. Carbon may make a unique appearance in the structure of some inorganic substances. You wonder where I am.in substances known as organometallics. A carbon atom in an organic molecule bonds to a metal atom in an inorganic compound to generate an organometallic complex. The organometallic compound just shows that, even though the two areas are different, there is a grey area where they might meet.

Conclusion

Recent efforts and successes have proved that organic-inorganic composite membranes have enormous promise for use in molecular separations. By combining the characteristics of organic and inorganic components, high-performance, defect-free organic-inorganic composite membranes may be created. These composite membranes have found widespread use in alcohol recovery, organic/organic separation, VOC elimination, solvent dehydration, and CO2 separation. Emerging nanomaterials such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and graphene have facilitated the creation of novel organic-inorganic composite membranes. New characterization approaches permitted the in-situ investigation of organic-inorganic composite membrane production and interfacial behaviour.

References

  • https://study.com/academy/lesson/inorganic-vs-organic-chemistry.html
  • https://sciencenotes.org/difference-between-organic-and-inorganic/

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"Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry." Diffzy.com, 2022. Sun. 02 Oct. 2022. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-organic-and-inorganic-chemistry-1021>.



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