Difference Between Mitosis in Plant Cell and Animal Cell

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: October 07, 2022

       

Difference Between Mitosis in Plant Cell and Animal Cell Difference Between Mitosis in Plant Cell and Animal Cell

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Introduction

If one were to look up the Dictionary meaning of the word Mitosis, we would see that it is a term related to Biology. According to the Cambridge English Dictionary, Mitosis can be defined as "the type of cell division that divides two cells that are exactly the same, each with the number of chromosomes as the original cell."

You might not be aware, but Mitosis is an essential process that is so critical to life. The Modern cell theory tells us that new cells develop from older ones. Hence we can say that mitosis is also called cell division.

On the other hand, what is cell division? we know that cells are supposedly the building blocks of life. Cell division is considered a basic feature of the same.  In short, cell division as mentioned before is essential to life processes. It is important for organism creation, and even for repair and growth. Cell division, therefore, handles the development and growth of multi cellular beings. 

So, what exactly happens during Mitosis? Mitosis is considered to be a process essential to life. During the process of mitosis or cell division, a cell makes a copy of its contents such as chromosomes. It is during this process, that a cell forms into two daughter cells.

A good enough example to help understand the meaning of mitosis is skin growth in humans, which is, of course common to animals. Did you ever wonder how skin grows? As the largest organ of the body, it is a fact that skin never stops growing. Hence from this, we learn that mitosis induces the cells of a child's body to multiply during the growth stage.

Mitosis in Plant Cell vs. Mitosis in Animal Cell

Let us get back to what exactly happens in the process of mitosis. During Mitosis, a cell makes copies of all of its contents, including its chromosomes. Then the cell splits into two daughter cells that are identical. The process of cell division ends with two completely different cells, each having its own nucleus.  From this, we are certain that mitosis is surely a process of cell division.

We have to note here, that cell division has a purpose behind it. Mitosis or Cell Division as it is called generally helps in the growth and repair of cells. Cells of both plants and animals usually go through the process of cell division. Cell Division is after all fundamental to life. There is a difference between Mitosis in Animals and Plants. This is why plants and animals grow so differently.

For those of you who were unaware, cell division or Mitosis occurs differently in both animals and plants! Mitosis occurs as two types of reproductive nuclear divisions in animals and plants, respectively.

The very fact that genetic material does not increase or decrease in quantity even after cell division, is a miracle of Nature. Expectedly, Mitosis helps in the repair, growth, and regeneration of cells. Naturally, it happens differently in the bodies of animals and plants.

The Modern cell theory as proposed by Mathias Schleiden, a German Botanist, gives an appropriate explanation of the relationship between all living things concerning cells. The theory suggests that all living things are made of cells and that all cells originated from other cells through a process of division. This same theory also claims that a cell is not only the basic building block of life, it is the secret behind its functions and structure.

Hence, Mitosis is also known as Cell Division. Sometimes it is called equational cell division. Mitosis has some benefits as well.  Mitosis helps to increase the cell count (which we also otherwise refer to as growth). It also keeps newly formed cells genetically stable. Mitosis also helps to regrow and repair damaged cells in wounds. Finally, it aids in asexual reproduction while also maintaining chromosomes in daughter cells.

Difference Between Mitosis in Plant Cells and Animal Cells in Tabular form

Table: Mitosis in Plant Cell vs. Mitosis in Animal Cell
Parameter of Comparison
Animal Mitosis
Plant Mitosis
Definition
In Animal Cell Division, the cell splits into two identical cells, each having its own nucleus.
On the other hand, the cell splits into identical cells, each with its own nucleus in a different entity, which is why it is called Plant Cell Division.
Basic Shape
The basic shape of a cell undergoing animal cell division becomes rounder before cell division
The basic shape of a cell undergoing Plant Mitosis does not change before cell division
Induction of Mitosis
Many un-identified hormones are responsible for inducing Animal Mitosis.
A hormone called Cytokinesis handles inducing Animal Mitosis.
Centrosome
Usually, centrosomes are formed in Animal Mitosis.
Usually, centrosomes are formed in Animal Mitosis.
Presence of Asters
In Animal Mitosis the presence of asters is noted in the mitotic apparatus.
In Plant Mitosis the presence of asters is not found in the mitotic apparatus.
Centrioles
Centrioles are known to organize the spindle
There are no Centrioles present.
Cytokinesis
Cleavage causes Cytokinesis
A small plate is what causes Cytokinesis to occur.
Midbody
The presence of a Midbody.
Midbody doesn't occur
Point of Origin
Throughout the body
Meristem

What is Mitosis in Plant Cells?

In plant mitosis, a plant cell divides itself into two identical daughter cells, each having its own nucleus.  This process of cell division usually is followed by cytokinesis, which is the division of the cytoplasm into two identical daughter cells. This in turn leads to the formation of two identical daughter cells. Both of these cells achieve a copy of the genetic material from the original cell.

When considering the process of plant cell division, there are a few things to keep in mind. Firstly, before proceeding further, the significant way in which Plant Mitosis is different is that the formation of mitotic spindles usually occurs without any centrioles.

Also, cell division originates in the region known as Meristem. Plants and fungi use the process of cell division to grow new cells from existing cells. Remember that cells do not always divide.

Another significant thing to note is that, during the first stage of cell division, also known as Prophase, in the plant cell,  microtubules like Centrioles are not there. The Mitotic spindle's formation occurs through the nucleation of microtubules. This happens near the nuclear envelope. The mitotic spindle is anastral in the case of plant cell mitosis.

Just before the next stage i.e. metaphase, the pro-metaphase occurs in the nuclear envelope that starts to break down. The chromosomes align at the cell's equator in this phase.

Then in the Anaphase, the chromatids separate themselves from the centromere. After that, they move in the opposite direction to each other. They move towards each of the poles. Both the sister chromatids are changed into daughter nuclei. This happens due to the division of the genetic material.

During the Telophase, the formation of the nuclear envelope begins. Cytokinesis takes place next, leading to the formation of two identical daughter cells.

What is Mitosis in Animal Cells?

On the other hand, animal mitosis in animal cells divides themselves into two identical daughter cells, each having its own nucleus.  This process of cell division usually is followed by cytokinesis, which is the division of the cytoplasm into two identical daughter cells. This in turn leads to the formation of two identical daughter cells. Both of these cells achieve a copy of the genetic material from the original cell. Remember that so unlike plants, cell division occurs throughout the animal's body.

What is the difference between the earlier form of Mitosis in the previous section and this one? The first stage is called Prophase. Plant cells indeed have microtubules present in them. Mitosis helps in retaining cell size. It also helps in the formation of the mitotic spindle. It is with the help of the centrioles located near the poles that these are arranged in the cell.

The next stage is known as Metaphase, the pro-metaphase stage occurs while the nuclear envelope is slowly breaking down.  At the equator, the chromosomes are usually aligned in the cells in this phase.

During the next stage i.e. Anaphase, the chromatids separate themselves from the centromere. After this, they move to oppose each other towards the poles. The sister chromatids are now transformed into daughter nuclei. This happens due to the division of genetic material.

After the daughter nuclei reach the poles, there is the formation of the nuclear envelope. After this stage comes cytokinesis which in turn leads to the formation of two identical daughter cells.

After cytokinesis, the cell comes back to interphase. Here it waits until the start of the next cell division process.

Differences Between Mitosis in Plant Cells and Animal Cells in Points

  • Cell division or Mitosis is said to occur at the Meristem in plants. On the other hand, it occurs throughout animals' bodies.
  • In plant mitosis, the cells do not change their shape before cell division. However, animal cells become significantly rounded during cell division.
  • A hormone called Cytokinin influences the process of cell division in plants. In animals, cell division is influenced by several hormones.
  • In plant cell division, spindles occur without centrioles, whereas in animal mitosis, centrioles assist with spindle formation. Also, in plant cell division spindles are anastral whereas, in animal Mitosis, the spindle is amphiastral.
  • The process of Cytokinesis is markedly different in the case of plant cell mitosis. A cell plate grows outwards until the cell finally divides. In animal cell division, the cell divides itself by forming a cleavage.
  • In animal mitosis, asters are considered to be a part of the mitotic apparatus. In plant cell division, asters are completely absent from the mitotic apparatus.
  • In the case of animal cell division, a midbody usually appears. On the other hand, in plant mitosis, a midbody doesn't appear.
  • Centrosomes are formed in mitosis in cells of animals. On the other hand, centrosomes are not formed in plant cells

Conclusion

Thus, Cell division is the basic process by which organisms generate new cells. In Mitosis, a cell separates into two identical daughter cells. Rather surprisingly, DNA is also transmitted equally between these cells. It is usually hard to tell the differences between both types of cell division. A lay person who never paid attention in Biology Class will find this exceptionally difficult. To put it simply, Mitosis is the process by which new cells are formed.

Trivia: The Main difference between both types of mitosis, is in its central location - while in plants it occurs at the Meristem, in the case of animals and humans it occurs throughout the body. 

The information given above opens our eyes to the reality of Mitosis. Mitosis is very fundamental to life. It occurs in both plants and animals at a cellular level. It also seems simple to reason that Mitosis is indeed cell division. Apart from that, it has many benefits, like regenerating cells in the body for growth and repair. Trivia: Did you know that Mitosis is the most common form of asexual reproduction in plant and animal cells?

Thus, we may infer that cell division being an essential life process is nothing to be afraid of, though it is complicated. Cell division takes place at a cellular level, unseen to the eye. 

Consider answering the following question: How did we develop into the beings we are today? Ever think of yourself as a single-celled blob, floating around? The Natural process of cell division called Mitosis is the reason we are multi-cellular beings. All organisms require growth, which in turn means that old cells will be replaced by new ones. It needs to be mentioned that Mitosis is considered a complex biological process. It is the process completely responsible for cell division in humans and eukaryotes.

Finally, why is mitosis important for multi cellular organisms? Mitosis as described above provides new cells which will be used for the replacement of old damaged cells. Mitosis or cell division also provides new cells for growth. Hence, mitosis is considered very essential for life processes.


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"Difference Between Mitosis in Plant Cell and Animal Cell." Diffzy.com, 2022. Sun. 27 Nov. 2022. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-mitosis-in-plant-cell-and-406>.



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