Difference Between Mitosis And Binary Fission

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: September 07, 2022

       

Difference Between Mitosis And Binary Fission Difference Between Mitosis And Binary Fission

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Introduction

The phrases "mitosis" and "binary fission" are both used in the biology field of study. Given that both are asexual reproduction methods in which a parent cell splits into two identical cells, the concepts behind the phrases are similar. There are several significant changes, including the procedure, even if the premise is the same.

Because bacterial cells lack a genuine nucleus like eukaryotes do, binary fission differs from mitosis. Furthermore, during binary fission, the nucleus does not form a mitotic spindle. The processes are comparable, though, in that the organism or cell first copies its DNA before dividing into two pieces through a procedure called cytokinesis.

Mitosis vs Binary Fission

In both binary fission and mitosis, two identical daughter cells are produced from the division of the parent cell in asexual reproduction. Bacteria primarily undergo binary fission, but only eukaryotes undergo mitosis (e.g., plant and animal cells). Compared to mitosis, binary fission is a quicker and easier process.

Meiosis is the third primary method of cell division. Only sex cells (gametes) undergo meiosis, which results in daughter cells that have half as many chromosomes as the parent cell.Some people find it very difficult to understand how cells divide since so many tiny processes take place inside each cell that are crucial to the process as a whole. However, other cell division processes, such as binary fission and mitosis, have distinctive features. Because both of them are asexual types of reproduction as opposed to meiosis, which is sexual in nature, they are frequently mistaken with one another.

Non-sex cells undergo a type of cell division called mitosis (somatic cells). The goal of this kind of cell replication is to produce more cells during blastogenesis and embryogenesis in both plants and animals. The creation of two product cells (daughters), which resemble each other and their original cell (mother) in both quantitative and qualitative ways, is the most defining feature of the mitotic process.

G1, S, G2, and the last mitotic phase, which ends the cycle, are the four stages or phases of mitosis. The so-called interphase is made up of the first through third stages. Although there is no chromosomal division occurring during this phase, it is the longest collective stage because of the intense cellular metabolic activity that involves both the nucleus and cytoplasmic organs. RNA transcription and protein synthesis are indicators of the G1 phase. DNA synthesis is a sign of the S phase. The G2 phase is largely characterised by a surge in cell energy and a subsequent expansion of cell size, particularly the nucleolus.

Binary fission, also known as bacterial fission, is thought to be the most well-known and basic type of asexual reproduction. Because the entire procedure is over quicker than the mitotic process, it is straightforward. The nuclear envelope and centromeres, which connect the mitotic spindles, are no longer involved in biological fission, unlike in mitosis.

Simple, transverse, and longitudinal binary fission are the three different forms of binary fission. Amoebas experience simple binary fission, where the division can occur on any plane. Paramecium and planaria undergo transverse binary fission when the cytoplasmic division plane coincides with the transverse axis of the specimen. In the euglena, longitudinal binary fission takes place when the plane and longitudinal alignment line up.

Difference Between Binary Fission and Mitosis in Tabular Form

Table: Mitosis vs Binary Fission
Parameter of Comparison
Mitosis
Binary Fission
Occurs in
In eukaryotes, the mitotic process takes place.
In prokaryotes, binary fission takes place.
Speed
 Mitosis progresses slowly.
.Binary fission happens quickly.
Types
There are no distinct mitotic kinds.
. Binary fission comes in 4 different flavours.
Phases
The mitotic process is divided into 5 stages.
Phases do not exist.
Spindle Formation
Spindle formation is a part of mitosis.
Spindle creation is not a part of binary fission.
Sister Chromatids
 The sister chromatids were a part of mitosis.
The sister chromatids are excluded from the binary process.
DNA
The mitotic spindle is connected to the DNA.
The cell membrane is where the DNA is affixed.
Chromosome’s Increment
No more chromosomes were added.
 The number of chromosomes can sometimes rise.

What is Binary Fission?

A single-celled creature produces a perfect duplicate of itself through a process known as binary fission. It is a speedier method of reproduction than sexual reproduction and does not involve locating a partner as sexual reproduction requires. E. coli cells can divide every 20 minutes or so at 98.6°F. Based on where the organism separates itself, binary fission may be divided into four basic categories.

Simple

Amoebas employ simple binary fission, which may occur along any plane in the organism.

Transverse

Paramecia and planarians (slime moulds) both employ transverse binary fission. The organisms are divided using this method along their transverse axis. Some types of slime moulds have the ability to split into a large number of daughter cells while also going through numerous fissions. When necessary, slime moulds may also reproduce sexually, for instance to diversify their genetic makeup in a new environment. Alternating between asexual and sexual reproduction is a capability of Paramecia.

Longitudinal

With longitudinal binary fission, the division happens along the euglena's longitudinal axis.

Oblique

Organisms of the genus Ceratium (marine dinoflagellates), where the separation happens obliquely or on a slant, employ oblique binary fission.

Binary Fission Method

The stages of binary fission resemble those of mitosis (see Mitosis section below). In the bacteria, the DNA uncoils, replicates, and is dragged to opposing poles in a process that requires energy. The organism becomes larger at this stage in order to get ready to divide. Finally, the two distinct cells separate from one another when a cleavage furrow forms in the cell membrane.

Binary Fission Steps

Although bacterial cells do not have nuclei, they do have nucleoid-like structures that contain their genetic material. The circular chromosome is copied twice, creating two replication sites, starting at a location known as the origin of replication. The origins split the chromosomes and migrate apart as the replication process proceeds. The cell enlarges or becomes longer.

Binary fission comes in a variety of forms: The cell can split in any number of ways, including across its transverse (short) axis, its longitudinal (long) axis, at an angle, and in other directions (simple fission). The cytoplasm is drawn toward the chromosomes through cytokinesis.

A septum, which physically divides the cytoplasm of the cells, occurs once replication is finished. Following the formation of a cell wall along the septum, the cell divides in two to create the daughter cells.

Although it's simple to assume that binary fission exclusively happens in prokaryotes, this isn't really the case. Fission is another method of cell division used by some eukaryotic organelles, such as the mitochondria. Fission can be used to split certain eukaryotic cells. For instance, Sporozoa and algae can reproduce through multiple fission, which produces many copies of each cell at once.

Genetic Diversity in Eukaryotes

Eukaryotes may experience genetic diversity problems as a result of binary fission, an asexual method of reproduction. Natural selection has forced these creatures to evolve means of exchanging DNA strands with other organisms in order to increase genetic variety throughout time. Transformation, transduction, and conjugation are the three techniques. Prokaryotes acquire little bits of DNA from other prokaryotes that have been released into the environment during transformation. Bacteriophages, which are capable of transferring tiny DNA fragments from one bacterium to another while infecting it, play a role in transduction. Finally, during conjugation, bacteria transfer little DNA fragments to other bacteria through hair-like structures known as pili (plural: pilus).

What is Mitosis?

There are six main phases in the mitotic process, which yields two daughter cells that are exactly alike. Unlike meiosis, which is utilised to produce sex cells for sexual reproduction, it is distinct. The cell has already made copies of its chromosomes before the onset of mitosis, and interphase is when the proteins that will form the mitotic spindle were made.

Prophase

The chromosomes coil tightly and seem bulkier during prophase. The nucleolus of the cells becomes smaller and vanishes. Spindle fibres begin to develop from the earlier-made proteins when the nuclear membrane begins to degrade.

Metaphase

The chromosomes align across the cell's midline during metaphase and cling to the spindle fibres.

Anaphase

Each pair of chromatids divides into two identical chromosomes during this phase. The chromosomal sets are subsequently drawn to the opposite ends of the cell by the spindle fibres.

Telophase

The chromosomes unravel and the spindle fibres disintegrate during telophase. The nuclear membrane also begins to remodel during this stage.

Cytokinesis

The process of cytokinesis occurs when a mother cell splits into two daughter cells. The genotype and number of chromosomes in each daughter cell's DNA are the same as those in the mother cell.

Steps in Mitosis

A stage of the cell cycle is mitosis. The process is far more complicated than fission, which is in line with the complexity of eukaryotic cells. Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase are the five phases.

In prophase of mitosis, the linear chromosomes reproduce and condense.

The nuclear membrane and nucleolus separate during prometaphase. The mitotic spindle is a structure made of organised fibres.

In metaphase, microtubules aid in chromosomal alignment on the spindle. To ensure that duplicated chromosomes are aligned toward the correct target cell, molecular machinery examines the DNA.

The spindle pulls the two sets of chromosomes apart during anaphase.

During telophase, the chromosomes and spindles travel to opposing ends of the cell, the cytoplasm is split into two by cytokinesis, the nuclear membrane develops around each set of genetic material, and the cell membrane divides the contents into two cells. The cell enters interphase, the non-dividing phase of the cell cycle.

Main Difference Between Binary Fission and Mitosis in Points

  • A kind of cell division known as mitosis produces two daughter cells with the same type and quantity of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
  • Asexual reproduction known as binary fission occurs when an organism splits into two identical halves, each of which has the capacity to develop to the size of the parent organism.
  • Binary fission and mitosis are both methods of cell division that result in cell duplication, however fission mostly happens in prokaryotes (bacteria), whereas mitosis happens in eukaryotes (e.g., plant and animal cells).
  • Another way to look at it is that, in binary fission, the dividing cells lack nuclei, but, in mitosis, the dividing cells do have nuclei. Let's examine more closely at what's involved to have a better knowledge of the procedures.
  • One of the two main forms of cell division that takes place in eukaryotic multicellular organisms is mitosis. The asexual reproductive technique known as binary fission, on the other hand, is used by unicellular bacterial species. This is the primary distinction between binary fission and mitosis. Another significant distinction between mitosis and binary fission is that, in contrast to binary fission, mitosis is a multi-phased complicated process.
  • Additionally, to aid in the process, specialised structures like the mitotic spindle will develop during mitosis. However, no such structures are produced in binary fission. As a result, it adds another distinction between binary fission and mitosis. The fact that each DNA copy binds to the mitotic spindle during mitosis but not each DNA copy's direct attachment to the cell membrane during binary fission is another distinction between binary fission and mitosis. Additionally, binary fission and mitosis vary in that binary fission includes the division of both the cytoplasm and the genetic material, whereas mitosis solely involves the division of the nuclei.

Conclusion

Both binary fission and mitosis have the same goal, which is to split cells into additional cells. The creatures they occur in make the biggest difference, despite the fact that there are many distinctions.

Cell division, or mitosis, is a process that takes place in eukaryotes, or creatures like plants and animals. It is an easy but difficult process. Five steps make up the process. Cellular growth and development is the process' primary goal.

Prokaryotes are capable of binary fission. The most popular and basic type of asexual reproduction is binary fission. It is a quick and easy procedure. There are no steps or stages in this procedure. Nevertheless, binary fission comes in four varieties.

References

  • Fission (biology). (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved June 13, 2017 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fission_(biology)
  • Mitosis. (2017, June 13). In Encyclopaedia Britannica online. Retrieved from
  • https://www.britannica.com/science/mitosis

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