Difference Between GDP and GPI

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Difference Between GDP and GPI Difference Between GDP and GPI

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It indicates that macroeconomics is concerned with the overall economic situation. This research looks at specific ways of calculating the country's annual worth of goods, products, and services. Here, terminology like Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Genuine Progressive Indicator (GPI) come into play. These words are used to assess and evaluate a country's economic situation.

The fundamental distinction between GDP and GPI is that while GDP solely analyzes economic and financial advancements and depressions, GPI considers these advancements and their negative consequences. As a result, unlike GPI, GDP ignores the social and economic consequences of technological improvements, such as increasing crime and ozone layer depletion.


When pollution is created, GDP rises twice when it is created and again when cleaned up. On the other hand, GPI considers the initial pollution to be a loss rather than again, with the expense of cleaning up later added to the cost of any destructive impact the pollution will have. It isn't easy to quantify the costs and benefits of these environmental and social externalities.

GPI balances GDP spending against external costs by accounting for the costs borne by society as a whole to repair or control pollution and poverty. GPI proponents argue that it can more accurately evaluate economic growth because it distinguishes between the total "change in a product's value foundation, accounting for its environmental implications."

The relationship between GDP and GPI is similar to that between a company's gross profit and net profit. The GPI is the GDP (worth of all products and services generated) minus the environmental and social costs, whereas the net profit is the gross profit minus the costs spent. As a result, if the financial costs of poverty and pollution are equal to the financial gains from creating goods and services, the GPI will be zero.

Difference Between GDP and GPI in Tabular Form

Table: GDP vs GPI
Parameters of comparison
It's the total money that is value-added created for an economy. Value-added means the value of all finished goods, products and services produced in the nation's geographical territory.
It’s the metric used for measuring the growth of a nation’s economy. It said that the alternative metric to gross national product.
The formula for GPI =Cadj + G+W-D-S-E-N
GDP measures diagnose the health of the economy of a country. Economists mainly use GDP to decide whether an economy is expanding or in depression.
GPI uses the parameter of GDP to show the adverse effects.
There are three methods present for the derivation of GDP. They're the Income method, Expenditure method and Product Method.
 The standard of living analyzes GPI., Which shows the nation's economic growth.
 economists always get a broader picture of where the economy has been in a year and what will be in the future.
GPI  goes through every section of the economy to point out the malware or virus defecting the economy.

What Is Gross Domestic Product?

The gross domestic product is the monetary worth of all finished goods and services produced within a country's boundaries in a specific period is the gross domestic product. It serves as a comprehensive scorecard of a country's economic health because it's a comprehensive measure of entire domestic production.

GDP is usually estimated every year, although it can also be calculated quarterly. For example, the government of the U.S. publishes an annualized GDP estimate for each fiscal quarter and the calendar year. The data in the report is presented in real terms, which means that it has been adjusted for price fluctuations and is thus inflation-adjusted.

Gross Domestic Product: An Overview (GDP)

All private and public consumption and investments, additions to the private inventories, paid-in building expenses, and the foreign trade balance are factored into a country's GDP calculation. The external trade balance is the most essential of all the components that make up a country's GDP. When the total value of products and services sold by local producers to foreign countries surpasses the value of goods and services purchased by domestic consumers, a country's GDP rises. A country is said to have a trade surplus when this happens.

Types Of Gross Domestic Product

  • GDP Nominal

Nominal GDP is the measurement of economic output in a country that considers current prices. All commodities and services included in nominal GDP are valued at the prices sold throughout the year. Nominal GDP is calculated in the native currency at market exchange rates to compare various countries' GDPs in financial terms. Nominal GDP is being used when comparing various terms of output with the same year. Real GDP is being used to compare the GDP of two or more years because removing the effect of inflation allows comparing different years to focus purely on the data.

  • Real GDP

Real GDP is the inflation-adjusted measure of the economy's output in a particular year, with prices held constant from year to year to isolate the impact of inflation or deflation from the overall trend in output. GDP is affected by inflation since it is based on the monetary worth of goods and services. Rising prices tend to boost a country's GDP, but this does not always reflect any changes in the number or quality of goods and services provided. As a result, simply looking at an economy's nominal GDP can make it impossible to identify whether the figure has climbed due to an actual increase in production or simply because prices have increased.

  • Per Capita GDP

A country's GDP per capita is a measure of the GDP per person in its population. The amount of output per person in an economy can estimate average productivity. GDP per capita can express in nominal, accurate, or purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Per-capita GDP indicates how much economic production value can be assigned to each citizen in its most basic form. Since GDP market value per person can measure affluence, this also translates to a measure of overall national wealth. Per-capita GDP is frequently compared to more standard GDP measurements. Economists use this indicator to gain insight into their own country's domestic and other countries' productivity.

Calculation of GDP

The expenditure approach—the total of what everyone in an economy spent during a given period—or the income approach—the total of what everyone earned—can both be used to calculate GDP. Both should have the same outcome. The value-added technique is a third way of calculating GDP by industry.

The calculation of expenditure-based GDP yields both real (inflation-adjusted) and nominal numbers, whereas income-based GDP yields just nominal values. The expenditure technique is the most prevalent, and it involves adding total consumption, government spending, investment, and net exports together.

GDP = C + I + G + (X – M)


C = consumer expenditure or private consumption

I denote the amount of money spent by a company;

Government spending is denoted by the letter G.

X = export value

M denotes the import value.

What Is Genuine Progress Indicator?

A genuine progress indicator is a metric for measuring economic growth. It is frequently used to substitute for the more well-known economic measure of gross domestic product (GDP). The GPI indicator includes everything that the GDP does. Still, it also includes additional data that show the cost of adverse economic outcomes like crime, ozone degradation, and resource depletion, among other things. The GPI compares economic growth's positive and negative effects to see if it has helped people.

What Is The Genuine Progress Indicator?

The Genuine Progress Indicator determines whether a country's environmental effect and social costs of economic production and consumption are negative or positive aspects of general health and well-being. Green economics theories inspired the creation of the GPI metric. Compared to the GDP, supporters of the GPI believe it is a better indicator of an economy's long-term viability. The GPI indicator has gained importance since 1995, and it is now utilized in both Canada and the United States. However, both of these countries continue to report their economic data in GDP to conform to the more common norm.

What Does The GPI Mean By Component Indicators?

There are 26 indicators in the GPI, which are divided into three groups (social, economic, and environmental). Each one gauges the state of the economy differently. Crime, family structure, academics, and more can all be found under the social heading. Pollution, climate change, and other elements that have a beneficial or destructive impact on the environment can all be found under the environmental category.

How Is GPI Determined?

GPI = Cadj+G+W-D-S-E-N5


Cadj = personal consumption adjusted for income distribution

G = capital growth.

W = unorthodox welfare contributions, such as volunteers

D = private defensive spending

S = activities that harm social capital

E = costs linked with environmental deterioration.

N = actions that harm natural capital.

GPI Advantages And Disadvantages

  • The Genuine Progress Statistic (GPI) is a holistic economic indicator that considers economic variables that the GDP does not. It considers negative externalities like pollution, crime, and other social breakdowns that jeopardize the economy. The associated damages result in significant societal expenditures.
  • Volunteerism, housework, and higher education are examples of substantial contributions to society that have been generally overlooked because they are difficult to quantify. These services are not included in the GDP because no compensation is given in exchange for them. The GPI, on the other hand, assigns values to each to account for their economic impact.
  • It can be challenging to account for these activities and events with no associated values. To include them, values must be assigned, and these values may differ depending on who assigns them. This level of subjectivity might make comparing challenging.
  • Furthermore, GPI's broad definition allows for various interpretations and calculations. These discrepancies can make it difficult to compile a complete list of criteria and compare GPI'S. One also makes it difficult for GPI to become the economic measurement standard.

Main Differences Between GDP and GPI in Points

  • GDP is the total amount of money created in a given economy. The worth of all finished commodities, products, and services produced inside the country's geographical boundaries is considered here. On the other hand, GPI is a metric for calculating economic growth.
  • GDP = C + G + I + NX is the formula for determining GDP. The formula for GPI, on the other hand, is as follows: GPI = Cadj + G + W – D – S – E – N.
  • The Gross Domestic Product measures a country's financial health. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures whether the economy is expanding or slowing. On the other hand, GPI employs the GDP parameter to highlight the adverse effects of economic activity. The GPI measures a country's overall health compared to its economic health.
  • The income, expenditure, and production methods are the three methods for calculating GDP. On the other hand, GPI is derived from a person's living level.
  • GDP gives a comprehensive picture of where the economy has been in the last year or quarter and what the future holds. However, the GPI spans the entire economy, representing its excellent and negative aspects.


Macroeconomics is a significant breakthrough in economics that is critical to understanding and operating a country's economy. It is critical for a comprehensive understanding of the economy. Although GDP and GPI are two distinct concepts, they are mutually beneficial. They are distinct for both reasons, but the term GPI has no meaning without GDP. It is not only about measuring commodities, products, and services. These terms refer to a thorough examination of how important they are to a country's economy and how they influence it.

The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) is an economic indicator used to assess the state of a country's economy. It considers environmental and social aspects not included in the GDP, such as family structure, benefits from higher education, crime, and pollution. GPI assesses if these other factors have a good or negative impact on the economy and can provide a comprehensive picture of how they affect people's lives and well-being.


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"Difference Between GDP and GPI." Diffzy.com, 2023. Mon. 20 Mar. 2023. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-gdp-and-gpi-661>.

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