Difference Between Endosmosis and Exosmosis

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: August 09, 2022


Difference Between Endosmosis and Exosmosis Difference Between Endosmosis and Exosmosis

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Biology's study of cells' structure, behaviour, and function is known as cell biology. Cells comprise all living things. The fundamental building block of life, a cell is what gives organisms their ability to live and work. The study of the structural and operational components of cells is called cell biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are included in the study of cell biology, which also includes several subtopics such as the study of cell metabolism, cell communication, cell cycle, biochemistry, and cell composition. Cell culture, cell fractionation, and other microscopy techniques are employed in the study of cells. These have made it possible and are still being utilized to make discoveries and conduct studies into how cells work, ultimately revealing new information about larger species. Understanding the parts of cells and how they function is crucial to all biological sciences and is also required for biomedical research in areas like cancer and other disorders. Research in several disciplines, including genetics, molecular genetics, molecular biology, medical microbiology, immunology, and cytochemistry, is tied to those in the field of cell biology.

The tiniest and most fundamental component of life is a cell. We may argue that a cell is the basic unit of life given that every living thing is made up of cells. Cells can be thought of as the fundamental unit of all living things. One cell can make up an organism, known as a unicellular organism. Comparatively speaking, multicellular organisms including animals, humans, and other beings include a significant number of cells. Robert Hooke discovered the cell in 1665. He found cells after looking at a piece of bottle cork under a microscope. He saw little details that looked like rooms. He gave these little entities the term "cells." Due to the limited magnification power of his microscope, he was unable to view the specifics inside the cells. He, therefore, claimed that these cells were non-living things.

When Anton Van Leeuwenhoek later saw similar cells in 1673 using a microscope with higher magnification, he noticed some movement in the cells and deduced that they were alive based on this discovery. He later gave these little things the term "animalcules," which means "small creatures," after repeatedly inspecting the cells. The nucleus found in the cells of orchids was later observed and described by Scottish botanist Robert Brown in 1883. He thus offered the very first understanding of the structure of the cell.

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are divided into two fundamental categories. Because prokaryotic cells lack a cell nucleus or another membrane-bound organelle, they can be separated from eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are the tiniest form of life since they are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells. Bacteria and archaea are examples of prokaryotic organisms, which lack an enclosed cell nucleus. Animals, fungi, plants, and protists all have eukaryotic cells. Their DNA is housed in a membrane-bound nucleus, and their diameter ranges from 10 to 100 m. Organisms with eukaryotic cells are known as eukaryotes. Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista are the four kingdoms of eukaryotes.

Both of them use binary fission to reproduce. Even though the majority are spherical or rod-shaped, the most common type of bacteria can have a variety of shapes. By examining the makeup of their cell walls, bacteria can be classified as gram-positive or gram-negative. In comparison to gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria have thicker peptidoglycan covering. Bacteria, for instance, have ribosomes, which turn RNA into a protein, a flagellum, which aids in cell movement, and a nucleoid, which holds the entire genome in a circular shape. Prokaryotic cells can survive thanks to a variety of internal mechanisms. In prokaryotes, RNA polymerase is recruited by a promoter sequence on the DNA template that consists of two consensus sequences. The bacterial polymerase is made up of a core enzyme with four protein subunits and an initiation-only supporting protein. In a procedure known as conjugation, for instance, the fertility factor enables the bacteria to have a pilus that enables it to transmit DNA to another bacteria that lacks the F factor, allowing the transmission of resistance and enabling it to thrive in specific circumstances.

Endosmosis vs. Exosmosis

The cell performs a variety of functions. These mechanisms include respiration, active transport, diffusion, and metabolism. All of these processes are necessary for the proper operation of cells; during metabolism, chemical reactions occur to maintain life; during diffusion, molecules enter and exit the cells; during respiration, oxygen and food molecules combine; during active transport, molecules move across the cell membrane with the assistance of cellular energy; and during osmosis, water crosses the membrane. There are more groups into which these techniques are classified. Osmosis is an example of such a process, while endosmosis is an example of osmosis. The following contains crucial details about these procedures.

The primary distinction between endosmosis and exosmosis is that they both entail various water flows and other opposing elements. In the case of endosmosis, water enters the cell; in the case of exosmosis, water exits the cell. To ensure that these processes take place, they are placed in various solutions. For endosmosis, the solution is hypotonic, while for exosmosis, the solution is hypertonic. When the process takes place, multiple outcomes are seen in cells. In the event of endosmosis, the cell may enlarge, become turgid, or even burst out, but in the case of exosmosis, the cells may contract along with the cytoplasm. Except for these, they can be distinguished depending on factors like solvent and solute concentration, water potential relative to the cytosol, and more.

Difference Between Endosmosis and Exosmosis in Tabular Form

Table: Endosmosis vs. Exosmosis
Parameters of Comparison
Water Waves
In the cell
Outside of the cell
Type of Solution
Being inserted into hypotonic liquids
Being inserted into hypertonic solutions
Water Capacity (than cytosol)
Cells as a Result
Human Importance
Toxins in water

What is Endosmosis?

It is known as endosmosis when the osmosis process results in the solvent of a solution entering a cell. Because of the osmotic gradient, when cells are maintained in any type of hypotonic solution, the solvent's molecules—which are primarily water—pass through the cytoplasm of the cells and give them the appearance of being inflated with a great deal of water pressure within. Endosmosis is the term for this. The cytosol, or liquid inside a cell, has less solute and more water potential than the hypotonic solution.

Endosmosis takes the following forms:

Raisin Swelling

Dried grapes will swell when placed in a hypotonic solution or plain water. Grapes' membrane allows water to get through due to their high-water potential, which starts the endosmosis process. After around 24 hours, it swells up and transforms into prolonged raisins.

Plant Water Absorption

Water is absorbed by plants through the endosmosis process, which begins with the root hairs of any plant and continues through the xylem tissues in its steam until the water reaches every part of the plant.

Endosmosis, a particular type of osmosis, takes place when water moves inside a cell that has been immersed in a hypotonic solution. Water has a higher potential than cytosol does. In the case of animals generally, this results in the cell enlarging or exploding during the process. This process takes place when the concentration of the solute in the surrounding area is lower than the concentration inside the cell. This is the passage of a solvent solution, such as water, across a semipermeable membrane. This procedure is passive. Its interior, which has a larger solute concentration than its exterior surroundings, is hypertonic (and its exterior, hypotonic). It raises a cell's turgor pressure. The cell swells and occasionally even bursts as more water enters it. And because animal cells have a cell wall, this happens more often in them than in plant cells.

Endosmosis is the process through which the solvent diffuses from the surface to the interior. Due to the larger water potential of the outside, the solvent diffuses from the exterior to the interior. The cytoplasm contains more water than the environment does. A solution is referred to as a hypotonic solution when the cytoplasmic concentration exceeds that of the surrounding solution. A semi-permeable membrane allows the solvent to enter the cell when it is submerged in a hypotonic solution. The cell develops and thickens as a result of endosmosis. Pressure is created against the cell wall as water diffuses into the cell. Turgor pressure is the name given to this force. The turgor pressure produced by osmosis is what causes cells to expand and proliferate. The cell does not explode, despite the turgor pressure. It is a result of the cell wall's high stiffness. Pressure potential is the amount of pressure placed on the cell membrane as a result of the solvent entering the cell.

Humans need this mechanism to survive, thus it is likewise crucial for us. However, when endosmosis is high in people, it may lead to cell death and occasionally result in the person's death. Therefore, compared to other people, a person who is overhydrated is more likely to become intoxicated by water quickly. Animals, such as freshwater fish, where the fluid may be hypertonic, also go through this process.

What is Exosmosis?

Exosmosis, a kind of osmosis process, takes place when a cell is submerged in a hypertonic solution, and the water escapes the cell. Compared to the cytosol, water has a lower potential. As a result, during this phase, the cell and cytoplasm usually contract. This process takes place when the concentration of solutes in the surrounding area is higher than that of the outer cell. Water or another solvent is what leaves the cell when it moves. Exo means outside, which makes the procedure very apparent. It occurs when the rate of osmosis is comparatively higher. Only when the cell is in a hypertonic state does it happen. In contrast to endosmosis caused by moving out of the water, this process typically causes the cell to shrink rather than inflate.

Here are a few instances of exosmosis.

Shrinking of Raisins

Sugar syrup is a hypertonic fluid, which explains why raisins are shrinking. if raisins that have swelled are stored in sugar syrup. Exosmosis causes water to leave the cell, which causes raisins to start to shrivel up. The weight of raisins increases.

Egg in Saltwater

The majority of an egg yolk is made up of water, which is less hypertonic than syrup, and proteins. An egg's membrane is semipermeable due to the calcium carbonate that makes up its structure. A hypertonic solution is a saltwater. When an egg is placed in the solution, it begins to leak water and contracts.

Exosmosis is the process by which the solvent diffuses from the inner to the outer region. Due to the interior's larger water potential, the solvent is diffusing from the interior to the exterior. In comparison to the surrounding area, the cytoplasm has a higher concentration of water. Hypertonic solutions are those in which the concentration of cytoplasm is lower than that of the surrounding solution. The semi-permeable membrane allows the solvent to permeate out of the soil when a cell is submerged in a hypertonic solution. Exosmosis causes the cell to contract, which triggers plasmolysis. Water is first lost from the cytoplasm during plasmolysis, then it is lost from the vacuole. The protoplast tends to pull away from the cell wall as a result of water loss from cells. A plasmolysis cell is one of this kind.

Exosmosis refers to the process through which a solution's solvent leaves a cell during osmosis. Due to an osmotic gradient, cells shrink if they are kept in a hypertonic solution because the solvent molecules leave the cell. Exosmosis is the name of this process. Exosmosis is brought on by the high-water potential inside the cell. This mechanism can occur in both humans and animals in addition to plants. It happens in animals like saltwater fish when their ion concentrations vary, and it happens to people when they get dehydrated or lose water from their bodies. Since the human body needs the right amount of water, if exosmosis occurs frequently in humans, it could cause the person major health issues.

Difference Between Endosmosis and Exosmosis In Points

  • In these procedures, the solute's concentration is also very significant. For endosmosis to occur, the solute concentration inside the cell must be greater than the solute concentration outside the cell, whereas exosmosis must occur when the solute concentration inside the cell is lower than the solute concentration outside the cell.
  • There are numerous examples of these, including endosmosis of soil into hair cells, freshwater fish, and water intoxicants as examples of plants, animals, and people, respectively, and exosmosis of root hair cells into root cortex as an example of a plant, an animal, and a person, respectively.
  • In contrast to Exosmosis, which involves water moving outside the cell, Endosmosis involves water moving inside the cell. This is the primary distinction between the two processes.
  • Cells are placed in various solutions to trigger this process. For the endosmosis process to take place, cells must be placed in the hypotonic solution, and the exosmosis process requires that cells be placed in the hypertonic solution.
  • In the case of the endosmosis process, the cytosol's water potential is lower than the environment, whereas, in the case of the exosmosis process, the cytosol's water potential is higher than the environment.


There should be no confusion between endosmosis and exosmosis as a result of the aforementioned distinctions and additional facts. Osmosis is a chemical process that involves the movement of molecules and occurs without the use of any energy. This technique can be performed on any solvent. Isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions are among the three that are used in this process.

Endosmosis and Exosmosis do not occur in an isotonic solution since the concentration of the solution within and outside the cell are the same. Instead, they only occur when the concentration in the surroundings is different (inside and outside). The osmosis pressure can be calculated using the formula =MRT, where is the osmosis pressure, M is the molar concentration, R is the gas constant, and T is the temperature.



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"Difference Between Endosmosis and Exosmosis." Diffzy.com, 2022. Sun. 25 Sep. 2022. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-endosmosis-and-exosmosis-812>.

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