Difference Between Bond Price and Face Value

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: August 15, 2022

       

Difference Between Bond Price and Face Value Difference Between Bond Price and Face Value

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Introduction

Governments and corporations both utilise the idea of bonds to raise money. The bond's face value is its value at maturity. Par value, which is another name for face value, is what is utilised to determine interest rates. The face value of a bond represents its face value and affects whether an investor will invest.The typical investor may find it difficult to understand the numerous words used to describe bond prices and yields. A bond's face value, which is equal to the amount of principal borrowed by the bond issuer, indicates the loan that investors have made to the organisation that issues the bond.

Bond Price vs Face Value

Bond price and face value vary primarily in that bond price determines the bond's present value by taking discount values into account, whereas face value is the bond's value at the time of maturity. The future cash may be subtracted to determine the bond price.

Bond Price is calculated by discounting the value of expected future cash flows. This is the value of the bond or its current value.  The value of the bond price changes with respect to the change in the rate of interest. Bond Price is used as a token of credit worthiness of the buyer.

As we will see in this article, Face Value and Bond Price are different entities and not the same. At the time of investing, the Face Value is fixed. It is determined by various factors like, interets rate, maturity date and so on. Face Value is the amount that the holder of the bond will receive when the bond matures. 

A bond's face value is predetermined and often issued in $1,000 increments. In contrast, its price varies according to the period to maturity, the issuer's credit rating, and market interest rates. Based on these circumstances, the price of a bond may be either above or below par. For instance, if interest rates rise, bond prices will fall and trade on the secondary market at a discount to face value

Difference Between Bond Price And Face Value in tabular Form

Table: Bond Price vs Face Value
Parameters of Comparison
Bond price
Face value
Change in value
Although the face value is originally associated with the bond price at the time of issuance, it gradually changes over time.
Typically, the face value does not change.
Connection to the Bond
Since the bond price changes, the specifics of the bond are typically not determined by it.
Based on its face value, a bond is characterised.
Factors
The bond's issuer's credits, interest rates, and maturity length are all factors that affect the bond's price.
The face value is primarily determined by the passage of time and the rate of interest.
public opinion
The public's perception of the organisation may or may not have an impact on the price of bonds.
The general consensus has no bearing on the face value.
Pre-determined or not
The price of bonds varies depending on a wide range of variables and is not predetermined.
Face value is predetermined and set.

What is Bond Price?

The yield to maturity factor affects the bond's price. Bond price and yield to maturity have an inverse relationship. The face value of the bond is more than the price of the bond when the value of the coupon rate is less than the yield to maturity. The bond price is set at a value that is equal to the coupon rates at the time of issue in order to sell them for a price that is substantially closer to their face values.

Although they are first issued at a price equal to their face value, the bond price eventually deviates from that figure. Bond prices rise as interest rates decline, and vice versa. Along with the yield to maturity, other factors that affect bond values include coupon rates, par value, and time till maturity.

Calculations for the period of maturity might be done annually, twice per year, or three times per year. There are discounts based on the number of intervals. The number of intervals and the number of coupons are equal. Bond prices increase along with rising coupon rates. The price of bonds will also rise as a result of the increased par value.

Since there is always a default risk connected with a bond, which implies that the borrower could not be able to pay the entire or partial amount of the loan borrowed, the price of a bond issued by a party is directly tied to the credit rating of that party. As a result, investment-grade bonds, which have better ratings than bad bonds, are sold for a higher price while bonds with lower ratings, known as junk bonds, are offered for a lower price.

Bond prices decline in response to an increase in interest rates, which raises the yields on older bonds and places them in the same category as newly issued bonds with higher coupons, and vice versa. At a certain future date, the loan's principal is repaid. Throughout the loan's tenure, interest payments are sent to the investor at regular, predetermined periods, usually every six months.

A bond is a fixed-rate investment product or instrument. The yield on a bond, which is the interest rate relative to the bond's current market price, changes with the price whereas the interest rate to a bond investor or purchaser is a set, stated amount. The bond is referred to as trading above par value or below par value when its price changes in relation to its initial par value, also known as face value.

The price variations are a result of the requirement to adjust the yield to account for the state of the market. Bond prices must decrease because unfavourable trends need higher yields. Similar to how the company's status has improved, lesser rates are now available for raising capital. As a result, the cost of current bonds increases.

Generally speaking, bonds are a safer investment than equities investments (stocks). But nothing is a sure bet, just like with any investment. Bond holders should be concerned about default risk, which is the possibility that the issuing government or company would declare bankruptcy and stop making loan payments. They also need to be concerned about interest rate risk, which is the possibility that a change in the current interest rate may reduce the bond's value. Additionally, verify if the documentation for your bond specifies whether it is "callable" or not. In this case, holders of called bonds will get their money back before the bond's maturity date.

What is Face Value?

Face value corresponds to bond price at the time of issuance, whereas value changes through time and in the future. Although the bond price varies over time and depending on interest rates, the face value of the bond does not change. Even if the face value is unchanging, there are a few things that affect it.

Credits, interest rates, and maturity dates are these three things. Bond prices decline as yield values increase. There are just a few businesses that grade bonds, and the bond's credit rating has a significant impact on whether its face value increases or decreases. The predetermined and fixed reserve is known as face value.

The obligation to initialise the bond's face value belongs to the bond's issuer. When a bond reaches maturity, the person who owns it, or the investor, receives the predetermined value.

The face value and market value are radically different from one another and do not match. Based on changes in the initial price at which the bond was issued, the investor's profit from the bond is calculated. The exceptional element that deviates and alters the face value is inflation rates.

Recognizing Face Value

If the bond issuer doesn't default, face value, also known as par value, is the sum that is paid to a bondholder at the bond's maturity date. Bonds offered on the secondary market do, however, change in response to interest rates. For instance, the bond is sold at a discount if interest rates are higher than its coupon rate (below par).

The bond is sold at a premium, on the other hand, if interest rates are higher than the bond's coupon rate (above par). While a bond's face value guarantees a return, a stock's face value is typically a poor indication of its true value.

Value at Face and Stocks

When evaluating the profitability of holding preferred stock, the par value is crucial since it affects how much dividends are paid. For instance, if a business sells preferred stock with a $100 par value and a 2% dividend yield, it will distribute $2 in dividends annually. Preferred stock acts similarly to bonds in this sense.

Face value of ordinary stock has far less significance to average investors. In several places, it is against the law to issue common stock for less than its face value. It normally has no impact on the stock's market price, which is determined by supply and demand.

Value at Face and Bonds

The sum that the bond's issuer pays the bondholder when it reaches maturity is known as the bond's face value. A bond's profit may be determined only by the growth between a below-par initial issue price and the face value at maturity, or it may have an extra interest rate.

Face Value and Shares of Stock

The legal capital that a corporation is required to maintain is defined as the total face value of all of its stock shares. Only the excess capital may be distributed to shareholders in the form of dividends. The money used to pay the face value essentially serves as a kind of default reserve.

However, there is no obligation for firms to publish the face amount at the time of issuance. This gives companies the freedom to set the size of the reserve at extremely low numbers. For instance, Apple Inc. shares have a par value of $0.00001, but AT&T shares are stated as having a par value of $1 per common share.

Face Value vs. Market Value

The market value of a bond is not the same as its face value. The sum of money pledged to the bondholder at maturity is known as face value. The market value of a bond, on the other hand, is the price that a buyer would be willing to pay for it. When a bond is sold, the face value is predetermined; the market value considers several external factors. These include the environment for interest rates at the moment and the maturity date (which in turn helps determine the value of all future interest payments).

The financial standing of a bond's issuer may also have an impact on the market price. As a result, the price of the bond may decrease if the issuing business or government body isn't doing well financially because of the

Main Differences Between Bond Price and Face Value in Points

  • Bond face value nearly remains constant but bond price fluctuates over time.
  • Bonds are expressed using their face value rather than their price.
  • In contrast to how time and interest alone impact face values but not credits, the price of bonds also depends on credits in addition to time and interest.
  • The cost of the bond is based on what the general public thinks and how the organisation is rated.
  • Bond prices are neither set nor predetermined, in contrast to face values, which are predetermined.

Conclusion

Bonds are comparable to loans in that they assist larger enterprises and, on occasion, the government in raising money. Compared to stocks, commodities, and cash, bonds are excellent sources of fixed income. Understanding the bonds correctly and using these terminology in our job might be profitable and result in ongoing, advantageous interests for us.They also demonstrated a substantial profit when they were sold again. They do, however, have a few disadvantages, just like everything else. The bond buyer will receive relatively little return on investment as the bond's maturity date approaches, perhaps resulting in a loss.

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"Difference Between Bond Price and Face Value." Diffzy.com, 2022. Fri. 09 Dec. 2022. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-bond-price-and-face-value-767>.



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