Difference Between Bacterial Cell and Animal Cell

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: August 07, 2022

       

Difference Between Bacterial Cell and Animal Cell Difference Between Bacterial Cell and Animal Cell

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Introduction

A cell is the fundamental building block of life; it is the smallest structural and functional unit of life. The term "cell" comes from the Latin word "Cella," which means "Little room." Bacterial and animal cells are two types of live cells present in the environment. Cells are the building blocks of all living species, including bacteria, animals, and humans. A cell is the most basic unit from which we are all made. Plants and animals have different cell types and numbers. We humans have billions of cells in our bodies, and these cells collaborate and function in the execution of all biological processes within a living creature.

Bacterial cells are classified as Monera cells, whereas animal cells are classified as Animalia cells. Bacteria are unicellular creatures, whereas mammals are multicellular beings with numerous cells. Every cell has three major components: the cell membrane, the nucleus, and the cytoplasm. Both of these cells differ greatly from one another. Cells are classed into two categories depending on the existence of a nuclear membrane, namely Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic, and can also be classified based on the number of cells that comprise an organism. In 1665, the cell was discovered by the eminent English philosopher Robert Hook.

Bacterial Cell vs Animal Cell

Bacterial cells are prokaryotic, which means they lack membrane-bound organelles. Animal cells are made up of membrane-bound organelles like the nucleus and mitochondria. Bacteria are unicellular creatures, which means they only have one cell to carry out all of their life activities, whereas mammals are multicellular organisms, which means they have more than one cell. They have a straightforward structure. On the other hand, animal cells are multicellular creatures with more complicated structures than bacterial cells.

Bacterial cells are prokaryotic, lacking a nucleus as well as organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, and other cellular components. One notable distinction is the uneven form of the nucleoid area within the cell. When compared to bacterial cells, an animal cell is a eukaryotic type cell with a sophisticated yet well-defined structure. The nucleus includes all of the organelles required for the cytoplasm to complete particular cellular functions required for the cell's regular functioning.

Difference Between Bacterial Cell and Animal Cell in Tabular Form

Table: Bacterial Cell vs Animal Cell
Parameters of Comparison
Bacterial Cell
Tabular Cell
Membrane
The nucleus lacks a well-defined membrane.
The nucleus has a clearly defined membrane.
Cell Wall
Murein makes up the cell wall.
There is no cell wall.
Cell Shape
It comes in a variety of morphologies, including coccui, vibrio, spirilla, and bacillus.
Because there is no cell wall, the form is irregular.
Chromosome
It just has one chromosome.
It has several chromosomes.
Organelles
There are no cell organelles present.
Cell organelles that are cell-bound can be found in the cytoplasm.
Reproduction ways
Asexual reproduction is accomplished by binary fission, while sexual reproduction is accomplished through conjugation.
Reproduce asexually through mitosis and sexually through meiosis.

What is a Bacterial Cell?

A bacterial cell is a kind of prokaryotic cell. It is a simple, unicellular bacterium. They lack organelles that are membrane-bound, such as the nucleus and mitochondria. It lacks a membrane-bound nucleus as well as organelles like mitochondria, lysosomes, and other specialised cellular components that are required for cellular activity. Bacteria may be found in a variety of environments, including soil, water, acidic hot springs, and deep sections of the earth's crust. The bacterial cell is a prokaryotic cell, which has the most basic structure for executing fundamental life processes or tasks since it lacks a well-defined or distinct nucleus and any membrane-bound organelles. They coexist with plants and animals in either symbiotic or parasitic interactions.

The cytoplasm includes numerous granules ranging in size from 10 to 20 m and has a lining or membrane that functions as a selectively permeable osmotic barrier. The protein is found via its primitive cytoskeleton. The nucleoid contains a single circular chromosome.

Some bacteria exist only as solitary cells. Some of them, however, live in pairs known as diploids. The bacterial chains are streptococci. Staphylococcus forms grapes in the same way that grapes form. Filaments are elongated bacteria, similar to actinobacteria. Some, like Nocardia, are branching filaments. A plasmid is an extra circular DNA in the cytosol found in some bacterial cells. The cell is quite tiny in comparison to the other cells, measuring between 0.2 to 10 microns in size. Because the bacterial cell has a well-defined cell wall, the cell has a distinct form. Radiation, detergents, disinfectants, heat, freezing, pressure, and desiccation are all resistant to them. Bacterial cells reproduce both asexually and sexually by binary fission. Some of the bacteria have fimbria on their surfaces. The cytoskeleton and histone protein are absent in these cells. Sexual and asexual reproduction occur simultaneously. Bacteria are classified into two types based on their carbon source: heterotrophs and autotrophs.

Components of a Bacterial Cell

Capsule

Capsules, also known as glycocalyx, are extracellular polymeric structures that enclose bacterial cells. After specific staining processes, it forms an envelope around the cell wall and may be seen under a light microscope.

Flagellum

A motile bacteria may have a flagellum (flagella). A flagellum is a group of hair-like, helical, and surface appendages that emerge from the cell wall. It has a diameter of 20-30 nm and a length of 15m. They are made up of flagellin protein. It gives the bacterial cell several forms of movement.

Cell Envelope

The cell envelope is made up of all the layers that extend from the cell membrane outward, including the cell wall, periplasmic space, outer membrane, and capsule. A cell wall is present in all free-living bacteria. Only a few strains have the capsule.

Cell Membrane

The cell membrane is made up of two phospholipid layers. The tails are located at the membrane's middle. Only water, gases, and a few tiny compounds may pass easily across a pure phospholipid membrane.

Cell Wall

The bacterial cell wall wraps around the exterior of the cell membrane. Bacterial cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan, which is composed of polysaccharide chains that are connected by unique peptides containing D-amino acids. Many bacteria rely on their cell walls to survive.

Cytoplasm

This is the cell's internal matrix. It is composed mostly of water (80%), proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, inorganic ions, and some low molecular molecules. It is semi-transparent and thick.

Ribosomes

Ribosomes and inclusion granules can be found throughout the cytoplasm. Ribosomes can account for up to 30% of the cell's total dry weight. The presence of a large number of ribosomes causes the cytoplasm to appear granular. Ribosomes are also known as 70S ribosomes.

What is an Animal Cell?

An animal cell is a kind of prokaryotic cell. It is a multicellular organism made up of many cells. They are the fundamental unit of life for creatures in the Animalia kingdom. They have a well-defined membrane-bound nucleus, cytoplasm surrounded by the plasma membrane, and membrane-bound cell organelles in the cytoplasm that execute specialised cellular activities required for proper cell activity. An animal cell is made up of mitochondria, a Golgi apparatus, and a cell membrane that separates the cell's outer and inner surfaces. Animal cells can create unicellular or multicellular eukaryotic creatures with membrane-enclosed organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria, and the Golgi apparatus. A cell membrane or plasma membrane surrounds all cells, separating the inner and outside components of the cell. The cell's components are suspended in the cytoplasm, a fluid. Cells are specialised to fulfil certain tasks. They perform a variety of tasks, including the generation of enzymes, hormones, and energy. Heterotrophic cells are seen in animals. Animal cells are bigger than bacterial cells and range in size from 10 to 100 m. Because they lack a cell wall, they have an uneven form. The mature human body has around 210 distinct kinds of animal cells. They provide several roles such as the production of enzymes, hormones, and energy.

The animal cell lacks a well-defined cell wall, which is the primary cause of its irregular form. The cytoskeleton is essential for cellular structure and form. Animal cells are made up of several membrane-bound organelles. Cilia, centrioles, flagella, and lysosomes are examples of structures found in animal cells. The plasma membrane is composed of phospholipids with Polor heads and non-Polor tails. The lipid bilayer model describes it. Because there is no stiff cell wall around the cell, it can form a varied spectrum of cell types, tissues, or organs, giving the animals a significant advantage in mobility.

Components of Animal Cell

The Cell Membrane

The plasma membrane is another name for the cell membrane. This membrane encloses and protects all of the organelles found within the cell by regulating what goes in and out.

The Lipid Bilayer

The term "lipid bilayer" refers to the membrane's two layers of phospholipids. The core of the lipid layers is made up of hydrophobic phospholipids, whereas the exterior is made up of hydrophilic phospholipids.

The Nucleus

The nucleus is one of the most important components of an animal cell since it carries genetic and hereditary material. The nucleus is in charge of the cell's correct functioning since it governs various functions related to cell development and survival.

Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is a semifluid, dense substance that is implanted inside the cell and fills the whole cell. It is primarily made up of three major components: water, salts, and proteins. Because of the membrane, the cytoplasm separates membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus and mitochondria. Other organelles are found within the cell's cytoplasm.

Mitochondria

The cell needs the energy to carry out its operations. This energy is provided by the mitochondria. Mitochondria are more frequently regarded as the cell's powerhouse. It creates chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate to give the cell the power it requires (ATP).

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

The endoplasmic reticulum is a tubular networking structure within the cell that serves the primary function of transportation and movement.

Main Difference Between Bacterial Cell and Animal Cell in Points

  • The nucleus of the bacterial cell is poorly defined and lacks a membrane, whereas the nucleus of the animal cell is well-defined and membrane-bound.
  • The bacterial cell has only one chromosome, whereas the mammal cell has a vast number of chromosomes.
  • Reproduction occurs in both bacterial and mammalian cells, and it can be sexual or asexual. Asexual reproduction occurs in bacterial cells by binary fission and sexual reproduction via conjugation, whereas sexual reproduction occurs in animal cells via meiosis and asexually via mitosis.
  • The cytoplasm of a bacterial cell lacks membrane-bound cell organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, and other cellular components, whereas the cytoplasm of an animal cell has all membrane-bound organelles.
  • The bacterial cell has a well-defined cell wall and hence a well-defined cell shape, whereas the animal cell lacks a well-defined cell wall and so has no specific form.
  • Most bacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission and sexually through conjugation. Animal cell reproduction, on the other hand, is far more complicated.

Conclusion

The difference between a bacterial cell and an animal cell is due to differences in the cellular arrangement. Bacterial cells are rudimentary and simpler, yet so much fresh information is found every day. Both cells have distinct properties and serve distinct duties for that particular organism. The bacterial cell belongs to the Monera kingdom, whereas the animal cell belongs to the Animalia kingdom. The relative simplicity of bacterial cells makes study easier, and this research, in turn, aids in a better understanding of the more complicated animal cells. The primary distinction between bacterial and mammalian cells is their cellular arrangement.

Bacterial cells are known to be of the prokaryotic cell type, which indicates that they lack all specific organelles and a distinct nucleus due to the lack of an internal well-defined membrane surrounding them. The animal cell is classified as a eukaryotic cell, which implies that it has a more sophisticated structure than prokaryotic cells and has all of the necessary organelles as well as cytoplasm and nucleus. It is reasonable to assume that bacterial cells and mammal cells differ greatly in terms of cellular architecture and biological activities.

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"Difference Between Bacterial Cell and Animal Cell." Diffzy.com, 2022. Fri. 09 Dec. 2022. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-bacterial-cell-and-animal-cell-852>.



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