Difference Between Astronaut and Cosmonaut

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: September 14, 2022

       

Difference Between Astronaut and Cosmonaut Difference Between Astronaut and Cosmonaut

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Introduction

When studying or discussing the cosmos, the first phrase that comes to mind is "astronaut. Sometimes, people mistake cosmonauts for astronauts, although this is not the case. These words are used for individuals trained by distinct agencies. American space-related agencies train astronauts, whereas Russian organisations train cosmonauts.

Astronaut vs. Cosmonaut

The primary distinction between an astronaut and a cosmonaut is that an astronaut refers to those who explore space and the universe, mostly from the United States, Canada, and Europe. These individuals receive training from American space agencies such as NASA, CSA, etc. On the other hand, the Russian space agency trains people with the name "cosmonaut" to go into space.

An astronaut is a person who explores space or pilots a spaceship. Before boarding the spaceship, astronauts must undergo rigorous training that teaches them how to survive efficiently in space. To make sure a person is physically fit for space exploration, they have to pass a number of tests.

The name cosmonaut is taken from the Greek for "Universe Sailor." This word refers to the Russian personnel who do space exploration and are trained by Russian space organisations. Russia has a lengthy history with space launches.

Both astronauts and cosmonauts are associated with the space travel programme. Regarding their respective professions, they are nearly synonymous, yet there are notable distinctions. Because of the space race, the terms "astronaut" and "cosmonaut" came into being. Russians use the term "cosmonaut," whereas Americans choose "astronaut."

Astronauts must both pilot the spaceship and do maintenance. This implies that astronauts must be proficient in both servicing and controlling the spaceship. Astronauts have a thorough grasp of life in space and the interaction between humans and space. In contrast, a cosmonaut must perform their duties outside of the Earth's atmosphere. When an astronaut leaves the atmosphere of Earth, it could be said that he or she becomes a cosmonaut right away.

The selection criteria for cosmonauts and astronauts are distinct. The astronauts must be youthful and no older than forty years old. They should also be shorter than 5 feet 11 inches. An astronaut should possess a Bachelor of Science degree and certification from a military test pilot school. Additionally, they should have at least 1500 hours of flight time. Candidates must also undertake rigorous psychological examinations.

The majority of cosmonauts come from the Russian Air Force, IMBP, and RSC Energiya. They must be less than 30 years old and shorter than 5 feet, 7 inches. They should be Soviet Air Force-trained officers with a background in the military. Additionally, a candidate must have 900 hours of flight time. Similarly to astronauts, cosmonauts must also pass psychological examinations.

Difference Between Astronauts and Cosmonauts in Tabular Form

Table: Astronaut vs. Cosmonaut
Parameters of Comparison
Astronauts
Cosmonauta
Meaning
The term 'astronaut' is derived from the Greek term 'astro nautes,' which means' star sailor.
 'The term 'cosmonaut' is derived from the Greek terms kosmos and nautes, which together mean universe sailor.
Eligibility
A Master's degree in one of the STEM disciplines is required. must have a minimum of two years of professional experience or 1,000 hours of jet aircraft pilot experience. The candidate must pass or qualify for the NASA astronaut physical exam.
A candidate must be a Russian citizen and be proficient in both English and Russian. The individual's age should not exceed 35 years. This individual must be in good health and have at least five years of relevant experience.
Origin
It consists of people from Canada, Europe, Japan, and the United States.
Its members are exclusively Russian nationals.
Training
Space agencies in the United States train astronauts.
 Russia-based space agencies provide cosmonaut training.
Are they same
When they depart the Earth's atmosphere, astronauts are termed cosmonauts
A Cosmonaut never called an Astronaut.

What is the definition of an Astronaut?

The term 'astronaut' is derived from the Greek 'astro nautes,' which means' star sailor' This word refers to people who sail or explore outer space. Astronauts journey to outer space using spaceships. In the spaceship, a small team with varying roles, ranging from commander to pilot, would be present. All of these people have to go through a lot of training and tests to see if they are qualified.

Astronauts are those who are trained by the United States' space agencies. These folks have exceptional leadership and communication abilities. To become an astronaut, one must examine the following requirements and qualifying criteria. The candidate must have a master's degree in one of the STEM fields, such as physical science, engineering, biological science, or another relevant degree.

Must have a minimum of two years of professional experience or 1,000 hours of jet aircraft pilot experience. The candidate must pass or qualify for the NASA astronaut physical exam.

Since 1961, 600 people have travelled in space. Before 2002, astronauts were entirely funded and educated by governments, either the military or civilian space agencies. With the suborbital flight of the privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new kind of astronaut called a "commercial astronaut" was born.

The first known formal usage of the term "astronautics" in the scientific community occurred with the foundation of the biennial International Astronautical Congress in 1950 and the International Astronautical Federation in 1951.

NASA applies the title of astronaut to any crew member onboard a NASA spacecraft travelling beyond Earth orbit. Additionally, NASA uses the phrase as a designation for individuals chosen to join its Astronaut Corps. The European Space Agency also refers to its Astronaut Corps personnel as astronauts.

What is the definition of a "cosmonaut"?

The term cosmonaut comes from the Greek terms kosmos and nautes, which together mean universe sailor. A cosmonaut is anyone who visits or explores space and is trained by a Russian space agency. The Russian space agency has a long history of setting spaceflight-related records.

To become a cosmonaut, an individual must be a citizen of Russia and be proficient in both English and Russian. The individual's age should not exceed 35 years. This individual must be in good health and have at least five years of relevant experience.

Main Differences Between Astronauts and Cosmonauts in Points

Because American and Russian space projects are run differently, there are certain discrepancies. In the end, the distinctions will come down to the requirements for becoming an astronaut or cosmonaut, the selection procedure, their training, the spacesuit and equipment they use, and their missions.

  • Selection Guidelines

To astronauts

A significant time commitment, extensive training, and extensive travel are all necessary to become an astronaut. You could put in nine months of training and yet not reach space. The selection standards are stringent, and it is a very risky job. Candidates for astronaut positions must also possess leadership, teamwork, and communication abilities.

  • They should possess US citizenship.
  • possess a master's degree* in a STEM subject such as engineering, biology, physics, computer science, or mathematics from an accredited institution
  • They must possess at least 1,000 hours of pilot-in-command experience on a jet aircraft or at least two years of relevant professional experience after receiving a degree.
  • has the ability to pass the NASA long-duration flight astronaut physical.

To cosmonaut

  • A Russian citizen may be a candidate for cosmonaut positions in the Russian Federation.
  • Candidates cannot be older than 35.
  • Candidates must be experienced and hold a university degree in engineering, science, or a related field. Priority will be given to candidates from the Russian Federation who have experience in the aerospace, rocket, and aviation industries.
  • To get ready for a space flight in the future, applicants must meet the following requirements:
  • the ability to conduct research on space technology;
  • They are comfortable with computer technologies.
  • For programmes at non-linguistic universities in the Russian Federation, for example, knowing a foreign language, such as English, is a requirement.

Choice Process

A spaceman from NASA

The astronaut selection procedure for the class of 2017 took more than 18 months, and only 14 of the 18,300 applicants were chosen. After a very thorough look at all of the applicants, 120 people are chosen for face-to-face interviews, physical exams, and psychological tests.

Candidates will go through another round of physical and mental exams, team-building activities, and interviews after that list has been further whittled down before a selection is made.

Cosmonaut

In 2012, Russia conducted its first-ever open (to everyone) cosmonaut selection, which lasted a few months. At that time, there were four phases for applicants to go through: initial application screening, medical examination, overall credentials evaluation, and several exams of all kinds. Eight of the 420 applicants made it to the final round and became cosmonauts in the Russian space programme.

  • Training

The chosen Russian cosmonauts will be flown to Star City at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Moscow, Russia. There, they will go through a rigorous and long-term training programme that includes Mig-29 flight, zero-G flight, putting on Sokol and Orlan spacesuits, simulating a spacewalk in the hydro lab, using a centrifuge, manually docking, and more.

At the Johnson Space Center, American astronauts train for countless hours. They gain comprehensive knowledge of space travel, the International Space Station (ISS), the various tools required, fundamental medical knowledge, and a new language (usually Russian). Before travelling into space, an astronaut may prepare for years. In addition to science, they have to learn how to stay alive, speak in public, talk to other people, and work as a team.

  • A spacesuit

Undoubtedly, one of the riskiest locations to investigate is space. Both astronauts and cosmonauts require a suit that shields their bodies from the heat, the cold, the radiation, and provides them with oxygen in order to survive in space.

Current space suit for astronauts

  • Callsign: Orlan-MKS
  • NPP Zvezda is the creator.
  • used on ISS missions. From 2017 to the present,
  • Extra-vehicular activity is its purpose (EVA).
  • 400 hPa is the operating pressure (5.8 psi).
  • 7 hours for basic life support

Current space suit for astronauts

  • EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) Baseline
  • Manufacturers: ILC Dover (suit) and Collins Aerospace (primary life support systems).
  • STS-6 (1983) to STS-110 (2002) missions
  • Function: orbital extra-vehicular activity
  • 4.5 psi (29.6 kPa) operating pressure
  • 109 lb (49.4 kg)
  • The total weight of the shuttle EVA suit is 254 lb (115 kg).
  • Primary life support: 8 hours (480 minutes)
  • Backup life support: 30 minutes

These daring individuals, whether Americans or Russians, astronauts or cosmonauts, have played a significant role in advancing humankind's exploration of space. Numerous of the tests they have carried out are helping to advance knowledge of space, our place in the universe, and our place in the solar system in the future. Here are a few of the most well-known space travellers and cosmonauts of all time:

Famous Astronauts

  • Sally Ride
  • Neil Armstrong
  • Buzz Aldrin

Famous Cosmonauts

  • Valentina Tereshkova
  • Yuri Gagarin:
  • Alexei Leonov

Federation

The following prerequisites must be met by applicants for further preparation for space flight:

  • Capable of researching space technology;
  • have involvement with computer technology;
  • As part of the prerequisites for programmes at non-linguistic institutions in the Russian Federation, etc., students must be proficient in a foreign language (English).

History and key events

567 people from 41 nations have reached orbit as of 2021; 503 of these space travellers were males and 64 were women. In 1994-1995, cosmonaut Valery Polyakov spent 438 days onboard the Russian space station Mir on the longest single trip into orbit. The greatest individual cumulative duration is 878 days, which cosmonaut Gennady Padalka spent on one Mir trip and four International Space Station flights. Franklin Chang-Daz and Jerry Ross, two American astronauts, have completed seven spaceflights, the most of any man. Oliver Daemen, who was 18 years old on the maiden flight of Blue Origin's suborbital spacecraft New Shepard in 2021, was the youngest person to travel to space. William Shatner was the oldest astronaut. He was 90 years old when he went on the second New Shepard mission in the year 2021.

The term "astronaut" is derived from the Greek words for "star" and "sailor" and is often used to refer to a person who has travelled in outer space. More precisely, "astronaut" refers to space travellers from the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan. Cosmonauts (from the Greek words for "universe" and "sailor") are the Soviet and subsequently Russian people who journey into space. China calls their astronauts taikonauts, a combination of the Chinese term for "space" and the Greek word for "sailor."

567 people from 41 nations have reached orbit as of 2021; 503 of these space travellers were males and 64 were women. In 1994-1995, cosmonaut Valery Polyakov spent 438 days onboard the Russian space station Mir on the longest single trip into orbit. The greatest individual cumulative duration is 878 days, which cosmonaut Gennady Padalka spent on one Mir trip and four International Space Station flights. Franklin Chang-Daz and Jerry Ross, two American astronauts, have completed seven spaceflights, the most of any man. Oliver Daemen, who was 18 years old on the maiden flight of Blue Origin's suborbital spacecraft New Shepard in 2021, was the youngest person to travel to space. William Shatner was the oldest astronaut. He was 90 years old when he went on the second New Shepard mission in the year 2021.

Fourteen Russian cosmonauts and seventeen American astronauts have died in spaceflight-related incidents. In January 1967, three people died during a ground test of the first Apollo spacecraft. In April 1967 and June 1971, one and then three cosmonauts died during reentry of their Soyuz vehicles. In January 1986, the entire crew of seven people died when the U.S. space shuttle Challenger exploded shortly after launch. In February 2003, seven more astronauts died when the shuttle Columbia broke up during reentry.

How do Indians refer to astronauts?

vyomanaut

According to reports, the Indian media has labelled their astronauts as "vyomanauts," a Sanskrit-derived term. According to reports, the Indian media has labelled its astronauts as "vyomanauts," a Sanskrit-derived term.

Conclusion

An astronaut and a cosmonaut both refer to those who do space exploration. But there are distinctions between these two words as well. The term "astronaut" refers to members of American space agencies, whereas the term "cosmonaut" refers to Russian space explorers.

References

  • https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0094576594900450
  • https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-44858-0

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"Difference Between Astronaut and Cosmonaut." Diffzy.com, 2022. Sun. 02 Oct. 2022. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-astronaut-and-cosmonaut-1016>.



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