Difference Between Soviet Union and Russia

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: April 30, 2023


Difference Between Soviet Union and Russia

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The Soviet Union and Russia are two concepts that, despite their differences, are often mistaken for one another and used interchangeably. The Russian Federation is a country, while the Soviet Union was a union. During the 1900s, the Soviet Union was comprised of 15 independent republics. While on the other hand, Russia is a country that is located in Asia.

"Union of Soviet Socialist Republic" is the official name given to the country that was once known as the Soviet Union. In addition to being the first state to openly proclaim itself a socialist nation, this nation was also a one-party state. This was the very first confederation of nations to start moving in the direction of a communist society. It was the time after the revolution had taken place.

On the other hand, Russia is a state that is also known as the Russian federation. Russia is located in Eastern Europe. It is the biggest nation in the world, covering around 17,125,191 square kilometers and accounting for almost one-eighth of the total inhabited land on earth. It was also the most important component of the Soviet Union, even though it was not formally known as the Soviet Union.

Both Russia and the Soviet Union are shortened versions of their lengthier, more official names: Russia and the Russian Federation. It was often referred to as the "Soviet Union," although the official name of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Russia, on the other hand, is a generic phrase that might refer to a particular geographical area, nation, government, or people.

Soviet Union vs Russia

The Soviet Union was a union consisting of several different nations, while Russia is a sovereign nation on its own. This is the primary distinction between the two. One may consider the Soviet Union to have been a complete community, one in which Russia, along with the other 14 nations, also participated. Only after the collapse of the Soviet Union did the country that is now known as the Russian Federation come into being.

In 1922, a union that would eventually be known as the Soviet Union was established; it lasted until 1991 before disintegrating. During those 69 years, together with the United States of America, it was one of the two most powerful unions around the whole wide globe. This federal union of a multinational republic was founded by the collaboration of several different national republics. Both the economy and the government were extremely concentrated in this nation.

On the other hand, Russia is a nation that was a constituent state of the Soviet Union throughout its existence. It served as the primary administrative hub of this union. Following the successful completion of the revolution in Russia, the country was included in the Soviet Union. The primary distinction between the two is that Russia is a nation-state, while the Soviet Union was a political alliance of several nations.

Both the Soviet Union and Russia may be found in the middle of the Eurasian and Asian continents, respectively. Nevertheless, although having certain things in common, such as a centralized government with social control that is held together by military and social ideology, the two systems are quite different from one another in many respects. During the period of the Cold War, which lasted from 1947 through 1991, both of these ideas were quite widespread. These shared values were readily apparent throughout the period in which both nations were actively functioning in the world at the same time.

Difference Between Soviet Union and Russia in Tabular Form

Parameters of Comparison Soviet Union Russia
Birth After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Soviet Union was established the following year in 1922. 1991 was the year that saw the birth of Russia.
Dissolution The collapse of the Soviet Union took occurred in 1991, and soon after that, Russia declared its independence and became a sovereign nation. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the territory that is now known as Russia was reorganized as the Russian Federation, which is consistently ranked among the world's most populous nations.
Boundary There are fifteen states that each have a boundary that is at least 20,000 kilometers long. The total countdown of Russia's boundaries is 20,241 kilometers, making it the second-largest country in the world after China.
Political Party There was only one party in power in the Soviet Union. The Russian Federation is a multi-party state.
Identity Because it was a collective union of many separate nations, the Soviet Union had many diverse forms of culture. Russia has its character as well as culture, which is comprised of many diverse customs.

What is Soviet Union?

Moscow served as the nation's capital when the Soviet Union was a one-party state. After the revolution, it didn't come into existence until 1922, and it was wiped out in 1991. The Soviet Union, which was one of the two major unions, consisted of a total of fifteen different nations. After 1991, this state that had previously been a part of Russia declared its independence.

In addition to Russia, the Soviet Union included the nations of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan, amongst others. In the Soviet Union, which consisted of a total of 15 republics, Russia had the position of being the most powerful nation; nevertheless, on December 25, 1991, it declared its independence.

Following the successful completion of the October Revolution in 1917, the Soviet Union began to expand, and it did not become stable until 1922. As the Bolsheviks took control of the government, they set about establishing the first socialist state to be protected by its constitution. This ultimately results in the unification of Russia as well as several other republics.

After a big meeting attended by plenipotentiary delegations on December 28, 1922, the declaration of the foundation of this union of the state was made. This proclamation took place on the same day. The dissolution of this union began in 1991, and concurrently with it, nations began the process of establishing themselves as sovereign republics.

15 independent republics comprised the Soviet Union, which functioned as a union. It was founded in 1922 and continued to operate until its demise in 1991. The Soviet Union was a communist nation that functioned primarily as a one-party state under the communist form of government. During the height of its dominance, the Soviet Union was recognized as one of the world's two superpowers (the other one being the United States of America). Countries as far apart as Germany and as far west as Japan were both considered to be members of the Soviet Union.

Since it was abolished in 1991, the Soviet Union does not seem to have survived. As a direct consequence of this, its constituent republics eventually developed into their sovereign nations. The Union is home to people of a diverse range of cultural backgrounds and nationalities while being governed by a single party and consisting of 15 separate republics.

What is Russia?

The territory of Russia, the biggest nation in the world, encompasses practically the whole of northern Asia as well as a third of the eastern European continent. The fact that there are about 11 time zones in Russia is a good indicator of the country's overall size. It is a nation that has several distinct types of landforms, ranging from dense forests to deserts.

The term "Russia" refers to the physical location of the nation. It is not a community of republic nations as the Soviet Union was; rather, it is a single state. 85 federal subjects make up this country, of which 22 are republics. It is considered a part of both Asia and Europe since it touches both of those continents. It is more accurately described as a semi-presidential republic than a political system.

It is a multi-party state, and while the president is considered to be the head of state, the prime minister is considered to be the head of government. Out of all the 15 republic nations that made up the Soviet Union, Russia was the one with the most population. It is not affiliated with any republican union or grouping of republican states. Rather, it was formerly a component of that organization back in the days of the Soviet Union when it was still around.

Because Russia is a separate state with its own unique set of traditions, its culture cannot be compared to that of the events that took place in the Soviet Union. Russia's culture is monolithic. In contrast to the Soviet Union, it does not have traditions and cultures that are a mixture of many things. Rather, it has a culture and set of customs that are rather distinct from others.

The term "Russia" refers to a particular nation as well as its government and civilization. At the moment, Russia is organized as a federation with a semi-presidential administration, and the Prime Minister serves as the head of state.

The history of Russia goes back a very long time. It once stood as a mighty empire, but it was eventually brought to its knees by a revolution. Following the revolution, Russia became a member republic of the Soviet Union and became a part of it. Throughout the time that the Soviet Union was in existence, the most powerful state republic was Russia. Moscow, which is located in Russia, served as the capital of the Soviet Union and is still the political and economic center of Russia. Russia is the biggest of the 15 republics that were dissolved, and it even annexed some of the former members of the Soviet Union into a federation that is now known as the Russian Federation.

Russia has persisted as both a nation-state and a governing structure right up to the present day. It retains a culture and set of customs that are uniquely its own, apart from those of the other countries that were once a part of the Soviet Union.

Main Differences Between Soviet Union and Russia in Points

  • While the Soviet Union was a federation of communist republics consisting of 15 republics, Russia is the biggest nation in the world and stretches from north Asia to eastern Europe. The Soviet Union was comprised of 15 republics.
  • Russia is a sovereign nation-state, while the Soviet Union was a political entity consisting of 15 independent republics.
  • Russia was a member state of the Soviet Union, which was a broader organization consisting of 15 nations at the time.
  • Russia is a nation that has its own identity as well as its own culture and customs, in contrast to the Soviet Union, which did not have a particularly distinguishable culture, tradition, or identity.
  • In contrast to Russia, which has a system that allows for several political parties, the Soviet Union was a one-party state.
  • While the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic was the official name for the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation is the official name for the modern-day state of Russia.
  • Russia and the Soviet Union are not the same countries, yet their histories are intertwined and they share many cultural similarities. Both of these words are considered to be informal designations.
  • Both Russia and the Soviet Union go by their official names, which are the Russian Federation for Russia and the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic for the Soviet Union.


In conclusion, we can comprehend the distinction between these two nouns. One was a collection of republics that used to be together, and the other was a republic that used to be a member of that collection. One thing that they could have in common is the fact that they are both very strong. The Soviet Union was a highly strong federation, and Russia is also a very large and powerful nation on our planet. The old Soviet Union was an even more formidable entity.

It is important to avoid having the words confused by using them differently since they imply something different not just in terms of history but also in terms of the present. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia attained its independence for the first time in its history.



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"Difference Between Soviet Union and Russia." Diffzy.com, 2024. Fri. 19 Apr. 2024. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-soviet-union-and-russia-729>.

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