Difference Between Consulate and High Commission

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: May 06, 2022

       

Difference Between Consulate and High Commission Difference Between Consulate and High Commission

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Introduction

Diplomacy is one of the countries that can implement their foreign policies and maintain good relations with each other. They send diplomatic missions in order to represent and defend their interests in foreign countries. These diplomatic missions include the High Commission and Consulate.

Consulate vs. High Commission

The major difference between High Commission & Consulate is that High Commission operates only in Commonwealth countries. It also includes a consular section and is not a separate consulate. The Consulate, on the other hand, is a smaller version of a High Commission that protects nationals from their home country in foreign countries.

A High Commission is a type of High Commission that represents the interests of a Commonwealth nation in another Commonwealth country. They are located in the capital of a Commonwealth nation.

A Consulate is a smaller version of a High Commission and is located in larger cities of a foreign nation. They have the responsibility to protect the interests of nationals from their country in foreign countries.

High Commission and consulate are terms used to describe government representations in foreign countries. One country may have one High Commission in another country, while it will have several consulates in different cities.

A consulate is a smaller representation of the High Commission. In a sense, consulates can be called junior embassies. Permanent diplomatic missions are generally located in the capital of a country. Consulates are only located in larger cities, not in the capital.

Only countries can establish embassies in another country if they recognize the sovereignty of the country. High-ranking diplomats from a country are Ambassadors. Consuls represent the Consulates.

Difference between High Commission and Consulate in Tabular Form

Table: Consulate vs. High Commission
Parameters for comparison
Consult
High Commission
Nominated persons
The government, senate or a territory appoint diplomats.
They are appointed directly by the foreign government and are citizens of the host nation or foreign nationals.
Scope
The Consulate assists citizens in host countries with questions regarding their residency.
They are mainly there to assist consuls in enhancing relations between the two countries.
Immunity
Consul generals enjoy "consular immunity", which protects them from any offenses related to their "consular duties".
Honorary consul generals do not receive immunity.
Remuneration
Consuls are diplomats from the country and are therefore paid by the government.
Honorary consuls are not diplomats by profession and are not paid by government.
Powers
They can help citizens by issuing passports and visas.
Visas and passports cannot be issued in any manner. Can only build relations between the countries.

The table shows the difference between High Commission and Consulate. We will discuss more about the topic in this article.

What is Consulate?

It is a diplomatic mission or the office of the consuls. This is a smaller version of the main diplomatic mission of a country, which is the High Commission in foreign countries. Consulates are often located in cities larger than the capital of the host nation.

It is particularly concerned with protecting the interests of citizens in foreign countries and has many functions. These are just a few:

  1. Furnishing passports for nationals and visas for foreigners
  2. Welfare cases, such as making funeral arrangements or settling estates for nationals who have died abroad, and whereabouts cases.
  3. Assistance and aid to nationals who are in conflict with the local authorities or have violated the laws of their host country.
  4. Participate in the relief of seamen.
  5. Provider of notarial and veteran services.

The promotion of trade and business relationships between the host and home countries is one of the functions that the Consulate performs. These are:

  1. Prepare periodic and special reports about the economic situation of the host country.
  2. Responding to inquiries related trade
  3. Trade disputes can be resolved.
  4. Certificate of invoices for goods shipped to the country of origin of Consular officers
  5. Implementation of the Treaties of Trade and Commerce
  6. Shipping Promotion and Protection
  7. Clearance and entry of ships and aircraft, and other duties related to international trade.

The Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1962 provides certain rights and privileges to consuls in order that they can fulfill their duties. These privileges and rights include exempting the Consul from any direct taxes or customs duties imposed by the host country.

The Consulate, including all its furniture and archives, is considered a foreign territory. Therefore, local officials, citizens, and government cannot violate it. They are, however, subject to the laws in the host country.

Most countries have at least one High Commission established in a foreign country. However, consular offices may not be available in every territory. Consulates are often established to provide additional diplomatic representation in larger countries. They are typically located in major touristic, financial, and economic centres.

A consulate's primary function is to perform administrative duties, such as processing visas for citizens from their host country and providing guidance on immigration issues.

They provide assistance to nationals from their country by replacing or renewing passports, updating security advice and providing general assistance. They provide assistance to citizens living in or visiting the host country.

Ambassador's Role

Ambassadors are a common tool today. Both states and non-state actors use diplomatic representatives to address any international problems. Ambassadors usually live abroad or in the country, they are assigned for a long time to get to know the culture and people. They are therefore more effective politically and can be trusted to achieve the goals of their host country. It was the Italian Renaissance that led to the development of modern diplomatic systems. The long-term impact of the creation and use of ambassadors in Italy during the 15th century has been significant for Europe, and the global diplomatic and political progress.

What is High Commission?

A High Commission is a type of diplomatic mission sent by a Commonwealth country to protect and represent its interests in another Commonwealth. The Commonwealth is a grouping of 53 countries that used to be part of the British Empire.

It is comparable to a High Commission in terms of its powers, privileges and responsibilities. It is however more than a High Commission, as it has both diplomatic and consular functions. It is also more involved than a High Commission in the socio-political or economic activities of the host nation.

It performs the following functions to implement the foreign policy of its home country and national interest in another Commonwealth country:

  1. Establish relationships with the top politicians, bureaucrats and military personnel of the host nation.
  2. To maintain peaceful and cordial relations between the Commonwealth countries, and participate in trilateral, bilateral and multilateral negotiations.
  3. Analyze, observe and transmit an objective report on the socio-political or economic situation of the host country to their government. This will allow them to make informed foreign policy decisions.
  4. Organize seminars, exhibitions, tours etc. To promote culture, education, commerce, and the like in the host country.
  5. Offer consular services to foreigners and nationals who are travelling to the host country.

A High Commission has enjoyed the same privileges since 1948 as a High Commission under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations in 1961.

These include exemptions from direct taxes or customs duties imposed on the host nation, from civil and criminal jurisdictions of that country and from general laws of the host state.

Personal security is guaranteed to the High Commission staff and their families. The High Commission, including all its archives and furniture, is considered part of foreign territory. Therefore, it is protected from any violations by local officials and government officials.

High Commissioner

The title of a high-ranking executive position, such as an ambassador, is the high commissioner.

The Imperial government-appointed high commissioners in the British Empire to manage territories that were not under the British Crown's sovereignty. Governors normally managed British sovereign territories.

The Commonwealth of Nations, a political association of 53 member states, is almost all of which were former territories of the British empire. The Commonwealth Secretariat, which is concerned with intergovernmental aspects, as well as the commonwealth Foundation, which deals with non-governmental relations among member states, are the two main institutions of the organization.

More information about High Commission and Consulate

The ambassadors represent their countries. The Ambassadors play a larger role and represent the government in another country. The diplomatic and political relations between host countries and embassies are the main focus of Embassies. They also care for the welfare of citizens living in that country.

Consulates are responsible for minor diplomatic tasks while Embassies handle major diplomatic missions. The need will determine the number of Consulates. The primary task of the Consulates is to promote trade and maintain commercial relations between the two countries. The Consulates also deal with visas, passports, as well as tourists and expatriates.

The Consulate's main role is to promote trade, such as helping companies invest in their country. It facilitates trade between the two countries.

High Commission represents a government's diplomatic representation in another country, while Consulate is the representation of public administration. Embassies exchange information with the host country. Consulates can only be responsible for citizens of the host country who are travelling or living there.

The Embassies inform the government of all significant social, political and military events in the host country. While Consulates provide information to the government about important events such as deaths, marriages, births, and other happenings.

The embassy is also responsible for the preparation of treaties between two countries and for organizing official visits.

Consulates are responsible for advising citizens on security matters. The responsibility for looking after citizens is also given to consulates in the event of arrest or detention.

Although both Consulates and Embassies represent the government of a foreign country in some way, they each have completely different responsibilities and roles.

Difference Between Ambassadors and High Commissioners

  • The ambassador is the representative of a country in another country, while the high commissioner is the head state in another nation.
  • The head of the embassy is Ambassador, while the head of the high commission is High Commissioner.
  • The ambassadors of the countries that aren't under British control had the same status as the ambassadors of the British colonies. However, the high commissioners are appointed for the British colonies.
  • The high commission is more involved with local society than Ambassador.
  • Ambassadors keep their own interests first, while the High Commissioner looks after the interests of locals and their citizens.

Main differences between High Commission and Consulate in Points

  1. A Consulate and a High Commission are equivalent to a High Commission that is exchanged between Commonwealth countries. The latter, which is a lesser version of a High Commission, provides protection and welfare-related services for people who are visiting or living in the host country.
  2. High Commissions, which are the equivalent to a High Commission in a host country, are usually located in the capital of the host nation and include consular offices. Contrarily, Consulates are usually located in larger cities outside of the Capital.
  3. The responsibility for leading the High Commission is assigned to the High Commissioner. A Consuls General is responsible to head a Consulate.
  4. Counsellors and secretaries are also part of the High Commission. They often get raked as first, third, and third, and attaches can be junior career officers and non-career officers. Contrary to this, Consuls, vice consuls and non-career consular agents, and Consuls work in Consulates.
  5. Diplomats serving as High Commission staff enjoy certain privileges and immunities, including exemptions from civil and criminal jurisdictions, direct taxes, and customs duties in the host country. Their families, as well as their staff, are protected from any harm. They can discharge their duties with no difficulty thanks to these privileges and immunities. Contrary to this, the privileges or immunities of Consuls is not as extensive. They are usually exempt from direct taxes and duties as well as customs duties in the host country. They can however be summoned to testify in civil cases. They are subject to the laws of the host country.

Conclusion

The High Commission and Consulate are two types of diplomatic missions that countries send to establish peaceful relations with other nations. They are responsible for the wider functions of diplomatic relations, which include reporting, negotiation and most importantly representation and protection of the interests of citizens from their home country in foreign countries.

They differ however in their structures, specialized functions they perform and the rights and privileges that they enjoy. And, most importantly, in the countries they serve.

References

  1. https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/114893
  2. https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid:899cbd34-1392-44f9-98c7-0f49a3e0bd31

Category

Law


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