Climate and weather mean the same to most people; however, that is not the case, even though they have similar components. Weather refers to variations in meteorological variables in the short run. Weather forecasts are typically for a day. Predicting the weather for more than a day is challenging and the scope for error increases. People are more concerned with the weather than the climate, as they do not truly understand the difference between the two.
The climate is nothing but the continued weather conditions one can expect for a long period. People are referring to the climate when they say summers are hot. However, if they say the day is hot, then it is a reference to the weather. Forecasts about climatic changes are made by scrutinizing the data collected over the years about weather patterns. The average of weather observations, specifically the average of weather conditions of three decades, is known as Climate Normals.
Climate Vs. Weather
Weather refers to atmospheric conditions and short-time changes in them. On the other hand, climate refers to weather patterns, that is, the atmospheric changes, over a long period. Usually, meteorologists define a region’s climate as the average of the atmospheric conditions in a locality for the past 30 years.
Difference Between Climate And Weather In Tabular Form
|Parameters of Comparison||Climate||Weather|
|Time Period||The climate is the average variation in weather over a period of time, which may be months or millennia.||Weather is the day-to-day atmospheric conditions of a particular location.|
|Components||Climate includes temperature, humidity, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure.||Weather includes wind, rain, fog, snow, and rare occurrences like hurricanes, tornadoes, and ice storms.|
|Name of study||Climatology is the study of climate.||Meteorology is the study of weather.|
|Time taken for changes to occur||Since the climate is the average weather condition computed taking into account variables, changes in climate take years to occur.||The weather may change from minute to minute (fickle weather).|
|Forecast||Climate forecast is possible with the data available on the weather pattern of a locality over the years.||Weather forecast depends on the collection of accurate data on meteorological variables like precipitation, temperature, and wind.|
|Usefulness||Knowing what kind of climate to expect will arm people with the knowledge of what kind of clothes to stock up on for a season.||Weather predictions help people to decide what to wear on a particular day.|
|At global level||The global climate is relatively constant at a given (short) period of time, as it is the average of various countries’ climates.||Weather varies significantly between countries as the atmospheric conditions keep fluctuating. Such variation means that global weather is anything but constant.|
What Is Climate?
In the narrow sense, climate is the average weather. A more apt description is as follows: Climate is the mean and variability of relevant variables in the long run. Climate normals make it possible for comparing climatic conditions of past decades with the present. This comparison helps to deduct what changes occur and how to develop solutions to deal with them.
Types Of Climate
An average temperature of 18 degrees Celsius is the defining characteristic of a tropical climate. The tropical climate is further classified into tropical rainforest climate and tropical monsoon climate. The former type is prevalent within 10-degree latitude of the equator. The latter is a result of changing monsoon winds. Hawaii in the United States, Medan in Indonesia, Ishigaki in Japan, and so on have tropical rainforest climates. Florida and Miami in the United States, Kerala and Karnataka in India, Jakarta in Indonesia, etc. have tropical monsoon climates.
A region having an average temperature above 0 degrees and below 18 degrees Celsius has a temperate climate. Places with temperate climates enjoy four seasons. The ground is frozen, and snow covers the land for at least a month in winter. A temperate climate is subdivided into Mediterranean hot summer and Mediterranean warm/cool climate.
The former is characterized by hot and dry summers (Faro in Portugal, Casablanca in Morocco, Naples in Italy, etc. have this type of climate), whereas the latter is similar to oceanic climate (San Francisco, Santa Barbara, and Seattle have Mediterranean warm/cool climate).
Continental climate indicates an average temperature below 0 degrees to above 10 degrees Celsius. It is predominantly prevalent in the northern hemisphere and is a rare occurrence in the Southern hemisphere.
The polar climate (the warmest month has an average temperature below 10 degree Celsius) are classified into tundra and ice cap climate. Tundra climates are prevalent in the northern edges of North America, Eurasia, and nearby islands. In ice cap climate, the average temperature never exceeds 0 degrees Celsius. Therefore, the snow never melts. Antarctica and inner Greenland have this type of climate.
Microclimate refers to the atmospheric conditions of a locality that slightly or significantly varies from the climate of the surrounding areas. This type of climate is prevalent near waterbodies or heavy urban areas. Temperature and humidity are the main parameters that define a microclimate.
A complex number of things influence microclimate. The water cools the atmosphere, whereas the surface objects (like brick, asphalt, concrete, etc.) in urban areas absorb the sun’s energy and reradiate the heat causing the atmosphere to heat up. Such phenomenon cause the climate to vary from the nearby area.
What Is Weather?
On Earth, weather occurs due to temperature, air pressure, and moisture differences caused by sun angle, etc. The atmospheric system is not orderly. Even a small change in the components can have a ripple effect, and the effects are magnified. That is why people encounter freakish weather at times. Though weather prediction mechanisms are refined, and there has been technological progress, it is still impossible to predict the weather for more than two weeks. Even those predictions may be wrong, as weather is unpredictable and chaotic.
Types Of Weather
The most common types of weather are as follows:
Is there anything more tempting than a sunny day? Bookworms may say there is nothing tempting about it, but most others will start planning outdoor activities they can do with their friends. Some like to sit on a park bench and just bask in the sunlight or observe nature. Sunny weather indicates a clear sky; however, in some locations, it can be fickle, and the sky turns cloudy.
The weather is cloudy when at least half of the sky and almost the entire sky is filled with clouds. People can see the sun peeking out from behind the clouds only a few times. Usually, cloudy weather is depressing. Bad weather may negatively influence emotions, as people are attuned to the sun, and the decrease in sunlight tampers with their internal clock.
Partly cloudy weather refers to an atmospheric condition that is neither sunny nor cloudy. The sun is clearly visible, but passing clouds hide it from view at times. This type of weather may go either way. The sun may emerge triumphant after the clouds pass, or the clouds may build up and block out the sun.
Clouds cover the entire sky, and people despair of ever seeing the sun in such weather. Although overcast weather conditions may eventually turn rainy, it does not rain when the sky is overcast with clouds.
Rainy weather reminds people of the idiom ‘It’s raining cats and dogs’. Of course, they do not mind mild rain, but most people curse and run for cover when it pours. After all, arriving home wet and dripping is not a pleasant sensation. Most forecasters use precipitation probability to forecast rains. A 10% probability of precipitation means a high possibility of isolated rain. A 20 – 50% POP indicates there will be scattered showers of rain. A 60 – 100% POP results in numerous showers for long periods with occasional breaks.
Who does not love snow? Kids love making snowmen, whereas teens and young adults start snowball fights. Therefore, when the weather forecast is snowy (meaning it is going to snow), most kids spend their time staring out with their faces pressed to the windowpanes.
London is a great example for explaining foggy weather. Fog is nothing new to the capital of England, but in 1952, the pollution was so high there that it resulted in smog (smoke + fog). The event dubbed ‘the Great Smog of London’ is still remembered due to the catastrophic effects it had on England. Fogs form when cold air breezes over cold water.
Every Sherlock Holmes fan will be familiar with foggy weather, as Holmes calls the weather dreary and dismal. Fogs reduce visibility, and driving through them is a nightmare. Moreover, fogs are more localized than other types of weather, and predicting it is more challenging (except for those who are familiar with the foggy conditions and have become skilled at predicting them).
Windy weather can be a blessing and a curse. The cool caress of the wind is a blessing when one has worked up a sweat by either doing physical labor or exercising. However, it is a curse when one is trying to make their way up a path, and the wind forces them backward. After all, people merely wanted to go for a walk. Being knocked back by the wind was not on their list when they woke up in the morning. Predicting windy weather is complex, especially when it looks like a storm is brewing.
Thunder and Lightning
Good old thunder and lightning have always been terrifying as people are afraid of what they do not understand. Thunder and lightning may result in thunderstorms. Even with so much technological progress, the reasons for thunderstorms are not yet clear to meteorologists. Moreover, forecasting thunderstorms is near impossible as there is no proper equipment to do so.
Weather is natural, but humans have been playing a role in modifying it for the past few decades. Agriculture and industrial activities cause such advertent or inadvertent modifications. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides combine in the atmosphere to form acid rain. Guess what causes Sulphur dioxide emission the most. That’s right, the burning of coal is the predominant cause of such emissions. However, many other industries play a part in it. The emission of greenhouse gases affects the weather resulting in droughts, severe storms, extreme temperatures, etc.
Main Difference Between Climate And Weather In Points
- Weather takes into account the changes in the Earth’s lower layer of the atmosphere, i.e., the troposphere. On the other hand, climate includes the atmospheric changes in the five layers (atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere) and the way they influence each other.
- The climate depends on latitude, longitude, the proportion of land to water, and altitude. Weather is affected by air pressure, moisture, temperature, and so on.
- Variations in weather are not something to worry about, as they are natural and, to an extent, unpredictable. Climatic changes take years to occur but are highly dangerous. Global warming indicates worsening climatic conditions.
- One can expect climate – for example, a snowy winter. However, the weather may be rainy one day and snowy the other. Therefore, one cannot expect specific weather.
- A change in weather does not necessarily mean a change in climate; however, changing climatic conditions indicate variations in typical weather patterns.
- Short-time atmospheric changes do not affect what type of plants and animals thrive in a particular region. If the weather is sunny one day and rainy the other, it does not make much difference. However, climate and changes in climate play a role in determining what types of flora and fauna will be in a region.
Spectacular weather and climate lift people’s moods, whereas less-than-ideal weather tends to leave them grumbling. Weather and climate tremendously influence people’s life, and people in turn, are responsible for climate change. Therefore, people must take measures to minimize their harmful effects on the climate if they wish to continue to have fantastic weather and soothing climatic conditions.