Difference Between CID and CBI

Edited by Diffzy | Updated on: April 30, 2023


Difference Between CID and CBI

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Combating crime and impunity continues to be a problematic undertaking in many parts of the world. Criminal investigations, which entail the examination of evidence to determine and prove an accused person's guilt, have been embraced to prevent crime while also providing justice to the public. Determining tactics, reasons, and identifying criminals has been delegated to many bodies.

The crime investigation department and the central bureau of investigations are two examples of these agencies. Many people think CBI and acid are the same things; however, they're not. These two government departments were in charge of dealing with criminal charges. The two government departments, on the other hand, are pretty dissimilar.

Cid works on the order of the state government. In contrast, CBI works on the central government's order, and one can join these investigative agencies by clearing particular exams.


The CID has the authority to examine incidents of organized criminal activity that have been reported in various districts around the State. Dacoity, kidnapping, attempted murder, robbery, and other crimes are examples of specific offences. While the district police make some arrests, the STF (Special Task Force) takes over the investigation of those cases and makes more arrests.

The CBI derives its broad authority from the Delhi Unique Police Facility (DSPE). The central federal government can extend its authority and jurisdiction to the states under Section 5 of the Act to investigate specific offences. However, Area 6 limits this power, stating that its powers and jurisdiction cannot be expanded to any State without the permission of that State's government.

Difference Between CBI AND CID in Tabular Form

Parameters of comparison CID CBI
Abbreviation Criminal investigation department Central Bureau of investigation
Meaning A criminal investigative department (CID) is a branch of the state’s law enforcement agencies of India responsible for investigating crime. The central bureau of investigation is India's most influential investigative agency.
The Year of establishment It was established in 1902 It was established in 1941
The Divisions Forensics, anti banking fraud, anti-human trafficking etc Anti-corruption, economic crimes divisions etc
Role It deals with criminal cases across the country. It deals with the matters that affect the country's economy.
The Operation area It operates within the country. It operates within and out of the country.
The Relation with government It's related to the state government and high court. It deals with the central government and the supreme court.
How to join agency The candidate might join CID through the state police force and be promoted to the concerned department based on their service record. They may also be able to pass the civil services examination or the UPSC use. The civil services test is used to recruit candidates for the CBI. To become a group officer in the CBI, the candidate must pass the exam and become an IPS officer. By completing the SSC cgl exams, the applicant can also become a sub-inspector in the CBI.

What is CID?

The term "criminal investigation department" is abbreviated as "cid." based on the criminal investigation departments of British police forces, a criminal investigation department (CID) is a branch of the state police services of India responsible for the crime investigation.

The British government established the first cid in 1902 in response to the police commission's recommendations. A photograph of rai bahadur pandit shambhu Nath, king's police medalist (kpm) and member of the British empire (mbe), is displayed at the entrance of the CID office on Gokhale margin Lucknow, with the description "father of Indian cid." the kid was divided in 1929 into three branches: particular branch, cid, and crime branch (CB-CID).

It comprises plainclothes detectives who employ advanced investigative techniques and forensic equipment to perform complex criminal investigations. These detectives are in charge of acquiring intelligence and conducting investigations into complicated criminal activity in areas where crimes have happened.

Branches of CID

From state to state, a cid may have multiple branches. These are some of the branches:

  1. Cb-cid
  2. Cell for human trafficking and missing persons
  3. Anti-drug cell
  4. Bureau of fingerprinting
  5. Cid
  6. Anti-terrorist unit

The government and the high court both direct CID's work. The following are some of the cid sub-units:

  • Particular crime prevention unit- gathers intelligence on the likelihood of crimes occurring based on observations of crime trends, forecasting future occurrences of those crimes.
  • Anti-terrorist police unit- gathers information on potential terrorist activity, cross-border criminal gangs, and organized crime.
  • The flying squad uses a camouflaged image to hunt down robbers and criminals on the move.
  • False accounting is the responsibility of the anti-banking fraud unit. Fraud and money laundering are two types of crimes.
  • Ballistics units are responsible for dealing with firearms and ammunition and identifying and matching ammunition to the firearms in use.
  • The anti-narcotics unit is responsible for dealing with illegal drugs and narcotics.
  • Bomb squads are responsible for finding, disposing of, and detonating explosives.
  • DNA examinations, fingerprint examinations, and document authenticity examinations are all handled by the forensic department.
  • Cyber forensics is tasked with investigating crimes committed using digital technologies.

The following are the responsibilities of the crime investigation department:

  1. Obtaining and disseminating information about professional cases and classes of crimes such as dacoity, highway or railway robbery, counterfeiting coins or stamps, note forgery, drugging or poisoning by professional poisoners, swindling, profiteering murders, economic crimes, human trafficking, and so on.
  2. She was controlling, counselling, and aiding in the inquiry or investigation of the abovementioned offences required by the circumstances.
  3. We are making enquiries into forged telegraphic or railway receipts, postal department frauds, and the transit of foreign criminals, which necessitates the assistance of the investigative department.
  4. The formation of a specialized squad to look into the instances.

CID's Strengths

  • Cid has the authority to investigate, detect, and prosecute specific types of criminal activity. The deputy general of police and the government are in charge of these cases.
  • It has the authority to conduct investigations following the Indian civil procedure code and the Indian criminal procedure code.
  • Cid is in charge of crime and criminal information systems. They are also in charge of planning and organizing the criminal intelligence system. They can also keep records.
  • Cid coordinates state-wide and federal investigations with entities and institutions across the country. It not only investigates crimes and keeps criminal records, but it also conducts investigations.
  • Ensure that the state crime record bureau (scrb) and the fingerprint bureau (fpb) operate effectively, professionally, and independently.

What Is CBI?

The central bureau of Investigation (CBI) is a federal law enforcement organization founded in 1941. Its mission is to deal with crimes on a national and international level, such as cases of corruption and scandals of national importance. It is controlled by the ministry of personnel, public grievances and pensions of the government of India and has its headquarters in New Delhi.

With the permission of the state administration, the central government may examine matters in the state. However, without the state government's approval, the supreme court and the high court can direct the CBI to investigate a criminal matter in any state in the country.

CBI has several divisions, including:

  • Division of anti-corruption
  • Division of economic offences
  • Division of administration
  • Division of special crimes
  • Prosecution directorate
  • Department of policy and coordination
  • The central forensic and science laboratory

The main functions of the central bureau of investigation:

  1. Corruption, misconduct, bribery, and fraud cases involving personnel of central government departments, public sector undertakings, and central financial institutions are being investigated.
  2. Investigation of instances involving violations of the country's economic and fiscal rules, such as income tax laws, foreign exchange regulations, customs and central excise laws, bank laws, etc.
  3. Terrorism, bombings, sensational killings, underworld crimes, kidnapping or abduction, and other unusual crimes.
  4. A gang of professional criminals investigates horrific acts that have national or worldwide ramifications.
  5. Facilitating the coordination of anti-corruption departments and the state police force's efforts.
  6. Assuming that there is a criminal case of public influence has to be investigated, as requested by the state government.
  7. Keeping a crime log and disseminating criminal information.

The CBI’s  Strengths

  • Limited powers: members of the CBI's investigative powers and jurisdiction are subject to the state government's agreement, restricting the scope of the CBI's investigation.
  • Restricted access: obtaining prior authorization from the central government to initiate an inquiry or probe of central government workers at the level of joining secretary and above is a significant roadblock in the fight against corruption at the highest echelons of the bureaucracy.
  • CBI is immune from the right to information act provisions, resulting in a lack of public accountability.
  • The CBI has been dubbed a "caged parrot speaking in its master's voice" by the supreme court of India due to excessive political meddling in its operations.
  • Credibility Loss: Improving the agency's image is the most difficult challenges, the agency has been chastised for its mishandling of numerous high-profile cases, including the Bofors scandal, the hawala scandal, the Sant Singh Chatwal case, the Bhopal gas tragedy, and the 2008 Noida double murder case, among others.

Key Differences Between CBI and CID in Points

  • CID vs CBI: what's the difference?

The cid deals with criminal cases within a country, whereas the CBI deals with national-level economic issues such as corruption and scandals. The crime investigation department (CID) becomes the new name for the cid. It is the state police department in charge of investigating crimes committed within the state. On the other hand, Cbi is a national investigation agency that tracks down and prosecutes crimes all around the country.

  • The Year of incorporation

The British government founded CID in 1902 after the police commission suggested it. On the other hand, Cbi was established as an exceptional police establishment in 1941 as a result of the dspe act.

  • Cid and CBI divisions

Cbi is in charge of anti-corruption, economic crimes, and administrative divisions, while cid is in charge of forensics, anti-narcotics, anti-banking fraud, and anti-human trafficking.

  • The Operational field

 Cid only works within the state when it comes to its operational area. On the other hand, Cbi can investigate and resolve national and international matters.

  • Governmental relationships

The cid takes on cases referred to it by the state government and the high court. On the other hand, the CBI is in charge of cases ordered by the central government, the supreme court, and the high court.

  • How to join the agency

There are two ways to join CID: the candidate can either join the state police force and be promoted or moved to the concerned department based on their service record, provided the candidate has two years of experience as a uniformed officer. Second, the candidate qualifies for the civil services examination, held every year by UPSC (before, this exam was held by SSC). To join the CBI as a group officer, the candidate must pass the civil services examination and become an IPS officer after graduation. In addition, to work as a sub-inspector in the CBI, candidates must pass the SSC cgl tier 1 and tier 2 exams.

Murder, riot, counterfeiting, forgery, smuggling, kidnapping, theft, and other sensitive and challenging cases are handled by cid. On the other hand, the CBI is responsible for cases involving corruption, economics, exceptional cases, and other matters.

Similarities Between CID and CBI

  1. Both are special forces tasked with dealing with different types of criminal activity.
  2. Both offer police specialized training.
  3. Both may employ specialized devices to solve criminal situations.
  4. Both the cid and the CBI are intelligence and investigation agencies tasked with detecting and investigating criminal activity.
  5. The government or the hon'ble high court are in charge of the matters. Furthermore, both are members of the police force. Officers of the department are also given specialized training.


With the rise of criminal activity worldwide, the cid and CBI's roles are becoming increasingly important. Preventing crime ensures a safe environment for residents while also increasing economic prosperity. Though both cid and CBI are intelligence and investigation agencies with offices at the state and federal levels, CBI has the upper hand when it comes to the investigation of severe and complicated cases involving influential people such as ministers, politicians, celebrities, cricketers, or any other public figure with a large following.




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"Difference Between CID and CBI." Diffzy.com, 2024. Thu. 29 Feb. 2024. <https://www.diffzy.com/article/difference-between-cid-and-cbi-241>.

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